引用本文:郑方圆,徐翔宇,曹素珍,等.新冠肺炎疫情期间医废收处人员防护措施及暴露风险调查研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1705-1710.
ZHENG Fangyuan,XU Xiangyu,CAO Suzhen,et al.Investigation on and Protective Measures and Exposure Risks for the People Related to Medical Waste Disposal during the COVID-19 Epidemic[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1705-1710.]
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新冠肺炎疫情期间医废收处人员防护措施及暴露风险调查研究
郑方圆1, 徐翔宇1, 曹素珍1, 段小丽1, 马瑾2, 赵晓丽2, 徐建2, 吴丰昌2
1. 北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京 100083;2. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19,简称“新冠肺炎”)疫情期间,医疗废物产生量急剧增加,给我国的医疗废物处置能力以及收运处置人员的防护带来了严峻考验.为研究医疗废物的收运、暂时贮存、处置等各环节工作人员的潜在风险及暴露防护措施,选取浙江省某典型医疗废物处置中心90名工作人员作为研究对象进行调查,分析了不同工种工作人员的个人防护水平,以及存在感染风险的物品或位置对其选择防护措施的影响.结果表明:在90名被调查者中,98.9%的工作人员在工作期间会佩戴医用防护口罩或全面罩和半面罩,87.5%的工作人员会穿工作服,79.6%的工作人员会佩戴工作帽,64.8%的工作人员会选择穿戴橡胶手套、防护靴来进行防护,近距离接触医疗废物时还会穿戴护目镜(55.7%)和防护服(33.0%);单次任务结束后,100%的被调查者会选择用流水、肥皂、快速消毒剂或0.3%~0.5%的碘伏消毒液来清洗双手或洗澡清洁,94.3%的被调查者会对个人工作物品进行消毒;所有人员回家后均会采取洗手、消毒、衣物通风晾晒等防护措施;不同工种工作人员采取的个人防护措施主要与工作过程中可能触碰到的存在感染风险的物品或位置有关,其中可能触碰到周转箱(桶)或一次性包装容器外表面和内壁等高风险物品的工作人员更倾向于采取更高级别的防护措施.研究显示,此次调查中不同工种工作人员的防护合格率间存在显著性差异(P<0.05),未来需要制定更加详尽具体的政策规范,并加强对该从业人员的管理和培训,增强其防范意识,降低职业暴露风险.
关键词:  医疗废物  医废处置从业人员  防护措施  暴露风险  新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.06.06
分类号:X33
基金项目:中国工程院攻关项目(No.2020-ZD-15);北京科技大学基础科研项目(No.FRF-DF-20-07)
Investigation on and Protective Measures and Exposure Risks for the People Related to Medical Waste Disposal during the COVID-19 Epidemic
ZHENG Fangyuan1, XU Xiangyu1, CAO Suzhen1, DUAN Xiaoli1, MA Jin2, ZHAO Xiaoli2, XU Jian2, WU Fengchang2
1. School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;2. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
During the COVID-19, the production of medical waste increased sharply, which brought a challenge to the capacity of China's medical waste disposal and the protection of the group that received, transported and disposed of medical waste. In order to study the potential risks and protection measures against exposure for the workers in the collection, transportation, temporary storage, and disposal of medical waste, ninety staff members from a typical medical waste disposal center in Zhejiang Province were selected as the research objects to study the personal protection level of staff in different types of work, as well as the influence of items or locations at risk of infection on their choice of protective measures. The results show that among the 90 surveyed people, 98.9% of the staff wore medical respirators or full-face masks and half-masks during the work, 87.5% of the staff wore work clothes, 79.6% of the staff wore labor protection cap, 64.8% of workers chose to wear rubber gloves and protective boots for protection, and goggles (55.7%) and protective clothing (33.0%) were also worn when they were closely contact with medical waste. At the end of a single task, 100% of the respondents chose to wash their hands with running water, soap, quick disinfectant or 0.3%-0.5% iodophor disinfectant or bathe, and 94.3% of the respondents disinfected their personal work items; all respondents would take protective measures such as washing hands, disinfecting items, ventilating after returning home. The personal protection measures taken by different staff were mainly related to the items or locations that were exposed to risk of infection during the work process. Among them, the staff who were in contact with high-risk items, turnover containers (barrels) or the outer surface and inner wall of disposable packaging containers were more inclined to a higher level of protective measures. This research indicates that there is a significant difference between the qualified rate of protection and the type of work for the staff in this survey (P<0.05). In the future, more detailed and specific policies and regulations should be formulated, and the management and training of the employees should be strengthened to increase their awareness of prevention and reduce the risk of occupational exposure.
Key words:  medical waste  medical waste disposal practitioners  protective measures  exposure risk  COVID-19