引用本文:罗兰,张俊丰,王红梅,等.我国新冠肺炎疫情期间医疗废物收集管理现状分析及对策研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1691-1697.
LUO Lan,ZHANG Junfeng,WANG Hongmei,et al.Analysis and Countermeasures of Medical Waste Collection and Management of COVID-19 in China[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1691-1697.]
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我国新冠肺炎疫情期间医疗废物收集管理现状分析及对策研究
罗兰1,2, 张俊丰2, 王红梅1, 李宇婷3
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012;2. 湘潭大学, 湖南 湘潭 411105;3. 北京交通大学, 北京 100044
摘要:
对全国抗击新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)疫情期间的医疗废物收集与管理现状进行分析,总结其存在的问题主要包括收集设施缺乏环境生物安全控制标准、基层人员对医疗废物管理不规范、医疗废物应急管理体系不完善等问题.为补齐防范重大公共事件中环境生物风险控制的短板,在现有收集技术、管理趋势的基础上进行分析,提出以下建议: ①鼓励研究多种可广泛应用于一般生活垃圾、一般医疗垃圾以及高传染医疗废物,并对人类和生态环境无害的分类收集设施,可将生物安全控制技术融合至废物分类设施.②医疗废物合理规范管理是城市、乡村环境管理中的重点,但对于民用防疫废物的收集和处置方面仍有漏洞,应尽快制订新型冠状病毒类传染病重大公共事件的民用医疗废物管理应急标准.③为了对医废管理流程进行实时监管,可参考“工业互联网”“智慧环保”和“互联网+”,与“5G”技术结合构建“数据闭环-及时监管”数据库来提升收集与管理效率.
关键词:  新型冠状病毒肺炎  医疗废物  应急管理  管理对策
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.05.39
分类号:X799.5
基金项目:中央级院所公益项目(No.2020-JY-001)
Analysis and Countermeasures of Medical Waste Collection and Management of COVID-19 in China
LUO Lan1,2, ZHANG Junfeng2, WANG Hongmei1, LI Yuting3
1. Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, China;3. Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the current situation collection and management situation of medical waste of COVID-19 in China, and summarized some shortcomings, including the inadequacy of environmental biological safety control standards for collection devices, the lack of a correct understanding of medical waste management, and the lack of medical waste emergency management system. In order to complement the shortcomings of the environmental biological risk control system, this study analyzes the current collection technology and management trends, recommends that: (1) Encourage research on a wide range of classification and collection facilities that can be widely used for general household waste, general medical waste and highly contagious medical waste, as well as for human and ecologically sound collection facilities, which can integrate biosafety control technologies into waste-classification facilities. (2) Reasonable and standardized management of medical waste is the focus of urban and rural environmental management, but there are still some loopholes in the collection and disposal of civilian epidemic prevention waste, and emergency standards for civilian medical waste management of major public events of infectious diseases with COVID-19 should be developed as soon as possible. (3) In order to supervise the medical waste management process in real time, we can use ‘industrial internet’, ‘smart environmental protection’ and ‘Internet plus’ in combination of ‘5G’ technology to build a ‘data closed loop-timely supervision’ database to improve the efficiency of collection and management.
Key words:  COVID-19  medical waste  emergency management  management strategy