引用本文:张筝,程亮,王夏晖,等.我国医疗废物应急处置体系构建思路[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1683-1690.
ZHANG Zheng,CHENG Liang,WANG Xiahui,et al.Construction of Medical Waste Emergency Disposal System in China[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1683-1690.]
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我国医疗废物应急处置体系构建思路
张筝1, 程亮1, 王夏晖1, 卢然1, 魏长河2,3, 雷梅2,3
1. 生态环境部环境规划院, 北京 100012;2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
自2003年的“非典”疫情以来,我国医疗废物处置从单一简易焚烧转变为多种形式的统筹应用,医疗废物应急处置在管理和技术方面均取得了显著进展.新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19,简称“新冠肺炎”)疫情期间,尽管面临更为复杂的医疗废物风险防控形势,但在医疗废物集中处置设施、危险废物焚烧设施、生活垃圾焚烧设施、水泥窑设施、移动式医疗废物处置设施、医疗机构自备处置设施等不同类型处置设施的共同作用下,我国仍然实现了全部医疗废物的安全处置.然而,新冠肺炎疫情暴发初期较为被动的医疗废物应急处置响应方式暴露出我国医疗废物应急处置能力较为薄弱的现状,存在顶层设计缺乏、应急储备不足、技术支撑欠缺等突出问题.借鉴国内外相关经验,针对存在的问题,提出建立医疗废物应急处置体系的建议: ①充分衔接突发公共卫生事件应急管理体系,开展医疗废物应急处置制度设计; ②科学制定并实施医疗废物处置设施建设规划,统筹考虑应急处置能力配置; ③评估新冠肺炎疫情期间医疗废物应急处置形式,总结合理技术路线;④推进应急物资储备、处置队伍和专家队伍建设等能力建设,提升应急响应速度.
关键词:  医疗废物  处置设施  处置能力  协同处置  技术路线
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.05.49
分类号:X705
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No.2018YFC1800101)
Construction of Medical Waste Emergency Disposal System in China
ZHANG Zheng1, CHENG Liang1, WANG Xiahui1, LU Ran1, WEI Changhe2,3, LEI Mei2,3
1. Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning, Beijing 100012, China;2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China;3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
Over the past over ten years, the disposal of medical waste in China has changed from simple incineration during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic to multiple forms during coronavirus COVID-19 epidemic. Significant progress has been made in emergency disposal of medical waste, both in management and technology. All the medical waste has been disposed safely through all types of disposal facilities although much more complex risk prevention of medical waste has been encountered in the COVID-19 epidemic. The facilities used for treating and disposing medical wastes include medical waste centralized disposal facilities, hazardous waste incineration facilities, domestic waste incineration facilities, cement kiln facilities, mobile medical waste disposal facilities, and medical institution-owned disposal facilities. However, at the beginning of the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, relatively weak emergency disposal capabilities of medical waste were exposed, leading to passive response. The lack of top-level design, insufficient reserve capacity and technical support are believed to be the main causes. Based on the relevant international and domestic experiences, corresponding suggestions to establish a medical waste emergency disposal system are proposed: (1) Carry out policy design of medical waste emergency disposal with fully connection with management system of public health emergency; (2) Make and implement a construction plan scientifically for medical waste disposal facilities with comprehensive consideration of the prepared emergency disposal capacity; (3) Summarize the reasonable technical routes of medical waste emergency disposal by evaluating the multiple disposal forms during the COVID-19 epidemic; (4) Promote the capacity-building of emergency material reserves, disposal teams and expert teams in order to speed up emergency response.
Key words:  medical waste  disposal facility  disposal capacity  co-disposal  technical route