引用本文:高菲,徐翔宇,郭倩,等.新冠肺炎疫情期间我国居民开窗通风频率和时间研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1668-1674.
GAO Fei,XU Xiangyu,GUO Qian,et al.Ventilation Frequency and Duration of Chinese Population Opening Window during the COVID-19 Epidemic[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1668-1674.]
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新冠肺炎疫情期间我国居民开窗通风频率和时间研究
高菲, 徐翔宇, 郭倩, 曹素珍, 魏佳宁, 王贝贝, 秦宁, 段小丽
北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京 100083
摘要:
密闭空间增加了气溶胶传染的几率,开窗通风对于降低感染风险、维持人体健康需求的新风量具有重要作用.为了分析新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19,简称“新冠肺炎”)疫情期间不同地区人群开窗通风行为模式特征,通过电子调查问卷获取了我国31个省(自治区、直辖市)的7 784名居民在新冠肺炎疫情期间的开窗通风频率和通风时间及人口学信息,分析了不同人群的通风行为及主要影响因素.结果表明:①调查中99.7%的居民会开窗通风,其中有69.2%的居民通风频率大于2次/d,38.2%的居民通风频率大于3次/d,不同人群间通风频率差异显著.②各地区居民的每日通风时间在93~126 min之间,受疫情影响程度高的地区居民开窗通风时间更长;与非疫情期间相比,各地区居民的通风时间在疫情期间均大幅下降.③疫情期间我国人群开窗通风行为的影响因素主要包括疫情相关因素和非疫情相关因素.其中,疫情相关因素主要是小区管控措施和小区周边医院分布情况,小区实施疫情管控措施及小区周边有定点医院的人群通风频率较高;非疫情相关因素主要是居民住宅类型、楼层及环境温度,相比于单元楼或公寓,居住在平房的人群通风频率较高,居住在单元楼或公寓的人群通风频率较低.④居住在单元楼或公寓中层的居民通风时间最长,居住在低层的居民通风时间则最短.调查人群的开窗通风频率和通风时间均与环境温度呈显著正相关.研究显示,新冠肺炎疫情期间,99.7%受试者具有开窗通风行为,各地区居民的每日通风时间在93~126 min之间,少于非疫情期间.
关键词:  新型冠状病毒肺炎  疫情期间  通风频率  通风时间  行为模式
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.06.15
分类号:X33
基金项目:中国工程院攻关项目(No.2020-ZD-15);北京科技大学基础科研项目(No.FRF-DF-20-07)
Ventilation Frequency and Duration of Chinese Population Opening Window during the COVID-19 Epidemic
GAO Fei, XU Xiangyu, GUO Qian, CAO Suzhen, WEI Jianing, WANG Beibei, QIN Ning, DUAN Xiaoli
School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
Confined spaces increase the chance of aerosol infection, and window ventilation plays an important role in reducing the risk of infection and maintaining the fresh air required for human health. In order to analyze the window opening patterns of people in different regions during the COVID-19 outbreak, information on the frequency and duration of window ventilation and the demographic information were obtained through an electronic questionnaire survey, which surveyed 7784 subjects in 31 provinces in China. The ventilation behavior of different population and the main influencing factors were then analyzed. The results shows that: (1) During the COVID-19 epidemic, 99.7% of the subjects opened windows for ventilation; Among them, 69.2% of the subjects had more than two times of daily ventilation, and 38.2% had more than three times of daily ventilation, indicating a significant difference in ventilation frequency between different groups. (2) The daily ventilation duration of residents in each region was in the range of 93-126 min, and the ventilation duration for residents in the affected areas was longer. Compared with the non-epidemic period, the ventilation time of residents in all regions decreased significantly during the epidemic period. (3) The influencing factors of ventilation behavior of Chinese population during the epidemic mainly included the epidemic related factors and non-epidemic related factors. Among them, the epidemic related factors included control measures in the community and the distribution of hospitals around the community. The ventilation frequency was higher for the population, who resided in communities with epidemic control measures and nearby designated hospitals. The non-epidemic related factors included the type of dwelling, floor and ambient temperature. Compared with the units or apartments, the ventilation frequency of people living in bungalows was higher than those living in units or apartments. (4) Residents living in the middle floor of a flat or apartment building had the longest ventilation time, while those living on the lower floor had the shortest ventilation time. The window ventilation frequency and duration were positively correlated with the ambient temperature, that is, the ventilation frequency and duration of residents in areas with higher ambient temperature were higher than those in areas with lower ambient temperature. This study indicates that 99.7% of the residents had window ventilation behavior, and the daily ventilation time in various regions was in the range of 93-126 min during the COVID-19 epidemic, which was shorter than that during the non-epidemic period.
Key words:  COVID-19  epidemic period  ventilation frequency  ventilation duration  activity pattern