引用本文:曹素珍,魏佳宁,陈星,等.新冠肺炎疫情期间我国居民洗手行为研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1659-1667.
CAO Suzhen,WEI Jianing,CHEN Xing,et al.Handwashing Behavior of Chinese Population during the COVID-19 Epidemic[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1659-1667.]
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新冠肺炎疫情期间我国居民洗手行为研究
曹素珍, 魏佳宁, 陈星, 郭倩, 郑方圆, 段小丽
北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083
摘要:
直接接触和飞沫传播等方式是新型冠状病毒传播的主要途径,合理的洗手行为是切断暴露途径和降低病毒感染风险的有效防控措施,对于新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19,简称“新冠肺炎”)疫情的防控具有重要的作用.该研究于2020年2月25日—3月14日,采用电子问卷的方式调查了覆盖我国31个省(自治区、直辖市)1 728个县(区)18岁及以上的居民,收集共计8 330名成人的洗手情形及洗手时长等信息,分析不同暴露情景下的洗手行为及其影响因素.结果表明:女性、城市地区居民在洗手比例和洗手时长上均分别高于男性、农村地区居民.人群在一般暴露情景下的洗手比例较高,而对于病毒感染风险较高的暴露情景(如咳嗽或打喷嚏后、接触他人后等)的洗手率(分别为73.6%和83.9%)排名靠后,说明人群对病毒的传播途径和防护措施有待深入理解;在洗手时间上,根据WHO规定的洗手时长标准(20 s),仅有41.7%的人群洗手时长合格(大于20 s),城区居民洗手时长的合格率(42.0%)显著高于农村地区(39.7%);总体上,具有外出经历的人群洗手比例较未曾外出的人群高,新冠肺炎疫情期间居住地是否存在新冠肺炎疑似和确诊病例显著影响居民的洗手行为,但是疫情最严重的地区居民的洗手时长合格率(37.2%)最低,反而疫情最轻的地区居民的洗手时长合格率(43.6%)最高,说明居民的洗手行为可能受疫情等多方面的影响.研究显示,相比于非疫情期间而言,疫情期间我国居民洗手行为发生率提高,洗手时长合格率提高,但是仍然水平偏低.应提高居民洗手行为意识,科学地执行洗手这一防护措施,相关政策制定以及个人防护应当进一步关注和重视洗手行为的防疫作用.
关键词:  新冠肺炎  洗手情形  洗手率  洗手时间  行为模式
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.06.17
分类号:X610.99
基金项目:中国工程院攻关项目(No.2020-ZD-15);北京科技大学基础科研项目(No.FRF-DF-20-07,FRF-TP-17-064A1)
Handwashing Behavior of Chinese Population during the COVID-19 Epidemic
CAO Suzhen, WEI Jianing, CHEN Xing, GUO Qian, ZHENG Fangyuan, DUAN Xiaoli
Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-Oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
Direct contact and droplet transmission are the main routes of novel coronavirus transmission. Reasonable handwashing behavior is an effective prevention and control measure to cut off the exposure routes and reduce the risk of virus infection, which may play an important role in the prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) epidemic. In this study, an electronic questionnaire was used to investigate the handwashing behavior and handwashing time of 8330 adults in 31 provinces in China during February 25th to March 14th, 2020, and the factors affecting hand-washing behavior in different exposure scenarios were then analyzed. The results show that the proportion and duration of hand-washing by women and urban residents were higher than that of men and rural residents, respectively. People were more likely to wash their hands in general exposure scenarios, while in scenarios with high risk of viral infections, such as after coughing or sneezing and after touching others, the proportion of handwashing was the lowest, 73.6% and 83.9%, respectively, indicating that the virus transmission routes and protection measures of this population need to be understood in depth. In terms of handwashing time, according to the standards of handwashing time (20 s) stipulated by WHO, only 41.7% of the population could reach the qualified level (that is more than 20 s), and the passing rate of urban residents' handwashing time was significantly higher than that in rural areas (42.0% vs. 39.7%). In general, the handwashing proportion of the people who went out was higher than those who never went out. Whether there were suspected and confirmed cases in the residential areas during the epidemic period had a significant impact on residents' handwashing behavior. However, the passing rate of handwashing time for the residents in the regions with the most severe epidemic was the lowest (37.2%), while the passing rate of handwashing time for the residents in the regions with the least epidemic was the highest (43.6%), indicating that the residents' hand-washing behavior may be affected by the epidemic and other factors. This study indicates that compared with non-epidemic period, the incidence of handwashing behavior among Chinese residents during the epidemic period increased, and the qualified rate of handwashing time was improved. However, the rate was still low. Thus, people's awareness of handwashing behavior should be improved, and the protective measures should be implemented scientifically. More attention should be paid to the anti-epidemic effect of handwashing when formulating relevant polices and personal protection.
Key words:  COVID-19  hand-washing scenario  proportion of hand-washing  duration of hand-washing  behavior patterns