引用本文:曹素珍,温东森,陈星,等.新冠肺炎疫情期间我国居民佩戴口罩防护行为研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1649-1658.
CAO Suzhen,WEN Dongsen,CHEN Xing,et al.Protective Behavior of Chinese Population Wearing Masks during the COVID-19 Epidemic[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1649-1658.]
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新冠肺炎疫情期间我国居民佩戴口罩防护行为研究
曹素珍, 温东森, 陈星, 魏佳宁, 王贝贝, 秦宁, 段小丽
北京科技大学能源与环境工程学院, 北京市工业典型污染物资源化处理重点实验室, 北京 100083
摘要:
口罩作为阻隔病毒传染的物理方式之一,其能阻断病原体经飞沫传播,同时具有双向隔离保护作用.佩戴口罩对于公众防范新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)感染的风险和维持人体基本健康具有重要意义.为了解新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19,简称“新冠肺炎”)疫情期间我国居民佩戴口罩的行为模式特征,基于新冠肺炎疫情期间我国人群环境暴露行为模式调查,分析全国31个省(自治区、直辖市)居民在新冠肺炎疫情期间佩戴口罩的行为特征,并探讨不同潜在风险人群佩戴口罩行为模式的差异性.结果表明:①在新冠肺炎疫情期间,我国人群外出佩戴口罩的比例在99%以上,显著高于非疫情期间的口罩佩戴率(16.05%),其中,医务人员以及与人群广泛接触群体的口罩佩戴率最高(100%).②居民以仅佩戴医用外科口罩、仅佩戴一次性使用医用口罩以及佩戴医用外科口罩和一次性使用医用口罩3种模式为主,占31种口罩佩戴模式的60%以上.③新冠肺炎疫情期间,不同职业人群、不同所属人群以及不同疫情地区人群佩戴口罩的比例均存在显著差异.④新冠肺炎疫情期间,我国居民佩戴口罩的更换频次多为累计使用时长4 h更换一次和累计使用时长24 h更换一次.⑤人群外出佩戴口罩的比例随新冠肺炎疫情严重程度的升高而增加.尽管新冠肺炎疫情分布特征和管控措施存在差异,但居民佩戴口罩行为均表现良好,其中居住地不存在疑似病例的人群比居住地存在疑似病例的人群的口罩佩戴率更高,说明人群佩戴口罩行为与疫情的发展可能存在一定的相互作用.研究显示,新冠肺炎疫情期间我国人群佩戴口罩这一防护行为总体执行较好.
关键词:  新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)  佩戴口罩  行为模式  环境暴露
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.06.18
分类号:X33
基金项目:中国工程院攻关项目(No.2020-ZD-15);北京科技大学基础科研项目(No.FRF-DF-20-07)
Protective Behavior of Chinese Population Wearing Masks during the COVID-19 Epidemic
CAO Suzhen, WEN Dongsen, CHEN Xing, WEI Jianing, WANG Beibei, QIN Ning, DUAN Xiaoli
Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-Oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
As a physical means to block virus infection, masks can stop the spread of pathogens through droplets, and have a two-way protection. Wearing masks is of great significant for the public to prevent the risk of novel coronavirus infection and maintain basic human health. In order to find out the mask wearing behavior of Chinese residents during the COVID-19 epidemic, this study analyzed the behavioral characteristics of residents wearing masks in China's 31 provinces, and discussed the differences of the behavior of wearing masks of the groups in various potential infection risk on the basis of the survey on environmental exposure behavior patterns of Chinese population during COVID-19 epidemic. The results show that: (1) During the COVID-19 epidemic, more than 99% of Chinese people wore masks outside their homes, which was significantly higher than that of non-epidemic period (16.05%); the highest proportion (100%) was the medical staff and the group who had extensive contact with people. (2) Residents mainly had three main patterns to wear masks, i.e., only surgical masks, only disposable surgical masks, and only surgical masks and disposable surgical masks, accounting for more than 60% of a total 31 mask wearing patterns. (3) During the COVID-19 epidemic, there were significant differences in the proportion of wearing masks among different occupational groups, people belonging to different groups and people in different epidemical areas. (4) During the COVID-19 epidemic, the replacement frequency of masks worn by Chinese residents was usually 4 and 24 hours, respectively. (5) The proportion of people wearing masks outside was positively correlated with the severity of the COVID-19 epidemic. Although there were differences of the epidemic distribution characteristics and control measures in different places, the proportion of residents wearing masks is high. Specifically, the proportion of people wearing masks in their living areas with no suspected cases was higher than that with suspected cases, indicating that there may be a certain interaction between the behavior of wearing masks and changes in epidemics. This study indicates that during the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic, the mask wearing behavior of Chinese people was generally good.
Key words:  COVID-19  wearing masks  behavioral pattern  environmental exposure