引用本文:薛荔栋,朱红霞,金小伟,等.国内外饮用水余氯限值及监测方法的研究进展[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1632-1639.
XUE Lidong,ZHU Hongxia,JIN Xiaowei,et al.Review of Domestic and Foreign Guideline Values and Monitoring Methods of Residual Chlorine in Drinking Water[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1632-1639.]
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国内外饮用水余氯限值及监测方法的研究进展
薛荔栋, 朱红霞, 金小伟, 张霖琳, 袁懋
中国环境监测总站, 国家环境保护环境监测质量控制重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情期间大规模使用含氯消毒剂,其残留可能对水环境及人体健康造成影响.我国饮用水水源地质量标准并未设置余氯项目及其浓度限值,且缺乏统一的余氯现场快速分析方法标准.为公共卫生事件发生期间的水质余氯监测与评价提供参考,对国内外饮用水标准余氯限值、实验室标准分析方法、现场快速分析方法等进行汇总分析,结果表明:①不同国家和地区以及WHO(World Health Organization,世界卫生组织)在饮用水标准中分别设置了出厂水中余氯限值(范围为0.1~2.0 mg/L)、管网末梢水中余氯限值(范围为0.1~1.8 mg/L)及饮用水中余氯最大允许浓度(范围为4~5 mg/L).②比色法、容量法因其具有反应迅速且稳定、准确度及精密度较高等优点而成为国内外实验室主要标准或推荐分析方法,高效液相色谱法检出限最低,灵敏度最高,可用于余氯痕量分析.③余氯现场快速分析方法多以比色法为主,在线监测方法多为电化学方法,但缺乏统一的标准方法.研究显示,国外饮用水标准中余氯最大允许浓度为5 mg/L,WHO推荐高风险环境下的管网末梢余氯浓度最低为0.5 mg/L,建议尽快开展水质余氯现场监测方法标准化研究.
关键词:  饮用水  余氯限值  监测方法
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.06.10
分类号:X832
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(No.2017ZX07302-001)
Review of Domestic and Foreign Guideline Values and Monitoring Methods of Residual Chlorine in Drinking Water
XUE Lidong, ZHU Hongxia, JIN Xiaowei, ZHANG Linlin, YUAN Mao
State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Quality Control in Environmental Monitoring, China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Bejing 100012, China
Abstract:
Chlorine disinfectants were widely used during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Water quality and human health might be affected by chlorine residues. Residual chlorine and its guideline value was not set in the quality standards of drinking water sources in China. The lack of result evaluation and standards of field rapid analysis methods were also problems to be solved. In order to provide a reference for monitoring and evaluation of residual chlorine in water in public health events, the domestic and international guideline values, laboratory analysis standards and field rapid analysis methods for residual chlorine in drinking water were summarized. The results showed that: (1) The guideline values of residual chlorine in the distribution systems (0.1-2.0 mg/L) and at the point of delivery (0.1-1.8 mg/L), and the maximum concentration of residual chlorine in drinking water (4-5 mg/L) were set by other countries, regions and WHO. (2) Colorimetric and titrimetric methods were considered as standards or recommended analytical methods for laboratories because of their rapid response, stability, high accuracy and high precision. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) could also be applied for trace analysis of residual chlorine due to its low detection limit and high sensitivity. (3) Most field rapid analysis and on-line monitoring methods were colorimetric and electrochemical methods, but there was no uniform standard method. The research showed that the maximum concentration of residual chlorine in drinking water in foreign countries, regions or organizations was 5 mg/L. The recommended minimum concentrations for residual chlorine to point of delivery were 0.5 mg/L in high-risk circumstances. It was suggested to carry out the standardization research on the field monitoring methods of water.
Key words:  drinking water  guideline values of residual chlorine  monitoring methods