引用本文:杨书慧,吴颐杭,屈雅静,等.病毒在无生命物体表面存活时间及其影响因素分析[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1618-1623.
YANG Shuhui,WU Yihang,QU Yajing,et al.Survival Time and Influential Factors of Viruses on Surface of Inanimate Objects[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1618-1623.]
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病毒在无生命物体表面存活时间及其影响因素分析
杨书慧, 吴颐杭, 屈雅静, 刘奇缘, 伍海闻, 龚逸伟, 马瑾
中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
2020年3月11日,世界卫生组织宣布新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19,简称“新冠肺炎”)疫情全球大流行.病毒性传染病在人群中的发生需具备3个相互关联的条件,即传染源、传播途径和易感人群,其中传播途径是一个关键环节.从环境传播的角度,综述了包括SARS(重症急性呼吸综合征)病毒、MERS(中东呼吸综合征)病毒等病毒在无生命物体表面的存活时间及影响因素.结果表明:包括冠状病毒在内的一些具有传染性的病毒能在多种无生命物体表面存活一定时间,进而可能通过物体表面进行环境传播,造成潜在的健康风险;物体材质、温度、湿度以及病毒载量等因素是影响病毒在无生命物体表面存活的主要因素.在上述分析的基础上,对医疗废物和生活垃圾的收集、运输、处理等过程提出了针对性的防控措施,以期对新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)以及未来可能出现的其他病毒的环境传播防控对策提供参考.
关键词:  病毒  无生命物体  存活  影响因素  防控措施
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.05.41
分类号:X172
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.42041003)
Survival Time and Influential Factors of Viruses on Surface of Inanimate Objects
YANG Shuhui, WU Yihang, QU Yajing, LIU Qiyuan, WU Haiwen, GONG Yiwei, MA Jin
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
On March 11th, 2020, WHO declared a global pandemic of COVID-19. The occurrence of viral infectious diseases in the population should have three interrelated conditions, namely the infection source, the transmission way and the susceptible population, and the transmission way is a key link. From the perspective of environmental transmission, the survival time and influencing factors of viruses, such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) on inanimate surfaces were reviewed. The results showed that some infectious virus, including coronaviruses, could survive for hours to days on a variety of inanimate surfaces, which might result in virus spread in the environment and potential health risks. Object materials, temperature, humidity and virus load were the main factors affecting the survival of viruses on inanimate surfaces. Based on the above analysis, specific prevention and control measures were proposed for the collection, transportation and treatment of medical waste and household waste, in order to provide reference for taking effective measures to control 2019-nCoV and other viruses in the future.
Key words:  virus  inanimate objects  survival  influencing factors  prevention and control measures