引用本文:吴颐杭,刘奇缘,杨书慧,等.病毒在土壤中的存活时间与传播能力及其影响因素[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1611-1617.
WU Yihang,LIU Qiyuan,YANG Shuhui,et al.Survival Time and Transmission Ability of Viruses in Soil and Its Influencing Factors[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1611-1617.]
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病毒在土壤中的存活时间与传播能力及其影响因素
吴颐杭, 刘奇缘, 杨书慧, 马瑾
中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
土壤是病毒在自然界主要的分布场所,也是病毒传播的一种媒介.对流感病毒、肠道病毒、甲型肝炎病毒和冠状病毒在土壤中的存活与传播进行了系统分析,并探究了病毒在土壤中吸附与存活的主要影响因素.结果表明:流感病毒、肠道病毒、甲型肝炎病毒和冠状病毒均能在土壤中存活较长时间,并能以土壤为介质进行传播,进而导致人体暴露;土壤微生物、含水量、土壤类型及温度是影响病毒在土壤中吸附与存活的主要因素,土壤微生物的存在、含水量的降低以及温度的升高可能阻碍病毒在土壤中的存活,黏粒含量及pH较高的土壤中病毒的吸附量与存活率较高,而金属氧化物及有机质含量较高的土壤中病毒的吸附量与存活率较低.基于上述分析,对病毒在土壤中存活与传播的研究提出了有针对性的建议,如系统开展我国土壤病毒的调查研究,加强病毒在土壤中存活、传播规律及影响因素的研究等.研究显示,土壤在病毒的环境传播过程中具有重要作用,不可忽视病毒经土壤传播产生的风险.
关键词:  病毒  土壤  存活  传播  影响因素
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.05.40
分类号:X172
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.42041003)
Survival Time and Transmission Ability of Viruses in Soil and Its Influencing Factors
WU Yihang, LIU Qiyuan, YANG Shuhui, MA Jin
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Soil is the main distribution place of viruses in nature and an important medium for virus transmission. The survival and transmission of influenza virus, enterovirus, hepatitis A virus and coronavirus in soil and the main influencing factors were analyzed systematically. The results showed that influenza viruses, enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses and coronaviruses could survive in soil for a long time. In addition, these viruses could be transmitted through soil and lead to human infection through soil exposure. Soil microorganisms, water content, soil type and temperature were found to be the main factors affecting the adsorption and survival of virus in soil. The presence of soil microorganisms, low soil moisture content and high temperature could hinder the survival of viruses in soil. In soil with high clay content and pH, the adsorption capacity and survival rate of viruses were high, while in the soil with high metal oxide and organic matter content, the adsorption capacity and survival rate of viruses were low. Based on the above analysis, specific suggestions about the studies of virus survival and transmission in soil were put forward, such as systematic investigation on soil viruses in China need to be carried out and research on the survival, transmission and influencing factors of viruses in soil need to be strengthened. This study shows that soil plays an important role in the environmental transmission of viruses, so the risk posed by environmental transmission of viruses should not be ignored.
Key words:  virus  soil  survival  transmission  influencing factors