引用本文:李瑞,徐从超,姜玉,等.病毒对地下水的入侵风险与防控对策浅析[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1604-1610.
LI Rui,XU Congchao,JIANG Yu,et al.Preliminary Understanding of Groundwater Virus: Risks and Control[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1604-1610.]
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病毒对地下水的入侵风险与防控对策浅析
李瑞1, 徐从超1,2, 姜玉1,3, 郝艳1, 杨予宁1, 李鸣晓1, 姜永海1, 许秋瑾4, 席北斗1,2,3
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 国家环境保护地下水污染过程模拟与控制重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 中国地质大学(北京)水资源与环境学院, 北京 100083;3. 上海大学环境与化学工程学院, 上海 201900;4. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
病毒可能会成为人类未来的“头号公敌”,全球地下水病毒污染事件频繁发生,因此,病毒对地下水的影响和防控逐渐受到国际重视.为进一步了解地下水病毒入侵,通过文献检索调研,分析了病毒进入含水层的途径、在地下水中迁移的限制性因素、在多孔介质中的转化过程,总结了地下水病毒入侵防控相关方法、技术、政策,探讨了风险防范意识有待加强、地下水病毒科学研究存在短板、应急防控与预警能力不足等问题及挑战.参考国内外相关研究成果和实践经验,初步提出地下水病毒入侵风险防控对策建议: ①源头排查风险,防患于未然.在地下水饮用水水源地保护区及补给区,排查防疫类污染源渗漏情况,经过化学或高温消毒后再使用农村地下水饮用水、生活用水.②加强地下水饮用水水源地病毒调查研究.研究病毒在土壤及地下水中的存活能力、迁移转化机制、环境行为特征、模拟预测技术、健康风险评价方法,制定相关规范、指南.③筹划应急防控对策.做好地下水应急监测预警、饮用水消毒处理、环境质量信息公开等相关准备工作,制定地下水饮用水水源地病毒应急防控预案.
关键词:  病毒  地下水  入侵风险  防控对策
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.06.09
分类号:X610.20
基金项目:北京市科技计划项目(No.Z191100006919001);国家自然科学基金项目(No.41673122)
Preliminary Understanding of Groundwater Virus: Risks and Control
LI Rui1, XU Congchao1,2, JIANG Yu1,3, HAO Yan1, YANG Yuning1, LI Mingxiao1, JIANG Yonghai1, XU Qiujin4, XI Beidou1,2,3
1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. College of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences(Beijing), Beijing 100083, China;3. College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201900, China;4. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Viruses will become ‘primary public enemy’ for humans in the near future. Global groundwater virus contamination incidents have occurred frequently and the prevention and control of groundwater virus invasion have attracted international attention. In order to provide more information about groundwater virus invasion, we carried out literature review, and analyzed the migration and transformation pathways, processes, and limiting factors of viruses in groundwater. We reviewed the methods, technologies, and policies of groundwater virus risks control. The main problems and challenges, such as lack of risk awareness, scientific research of groundwater viruses, as well as emergency prevention and early warning, were discussed. We referred some research results and practical experiences, proposed three measures and suggestions for groundwater virus risks control. The first is to investigate pollution risk sources, the second is to increase investigation and research of viruses in drinking water groundwater sources, and the third is to plan emergency prevention and control measures.
Key words:  virus  groundwater  invasion risk  prevention and control measures