引用本文:王珺瑜,赵晓丽,梁为纲,等.环境因素对病毒在水体中生存与传播的影响[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1596-1603.
WANG Junyu,ZHAO Xiaoli,LIANG Weigang,et al.Influences of Environmental Factors on Survival and Transmission of Viruses in Water[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1596-1603.]
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环境因素对病毒在水体中生存与传播的影响
王珺瑜1,2, 赵晓丽1, 梁为纲1, 牛琳1, 汪霞1, 王晓蕾1
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
摘要:
目前,新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)在全球范围内广泛传播.2019-nCoV在粪便和污水中的检出揭示了病毒介水传播的可能性.了解各类环境因素对水源性病毒生存与传播的影响对介水传染病的防控及病毒风险评估具有重要意义.通过对国内外相关研究的文献调研,探究了影响病毒在水体中生存与传播的主要环境因素.研究表明,致病病毒在水环境中的存活和传播潜力与紫外线照射、水体温度、pH、盐度以及水体中存在的微生物和悬浮颗粒物等环境条件密切相关.即:①低温能够大幅延长病毒的存活时间,更有利于病毒在水体中的传播;高温能够加速病毒失活从而削弱病毒的传播潜力.②紫外线照射通过破坏病毒核酸能够有效去除和灭活病毒.③水体中的微生物能够产生对病毒颗粒不利的代谢物,或利用病毒衣壳作为营养来源,从而导致病毒失活.④各类水体中存在的大量悬浮颗粒物对病毒的吸附大大延长了病毒的存活时间,从而增强了病毒在水体中的潜在传播能力;此外,悬浮颗粒物能够促进或阻碍病毒在多孔介质中的传输与滞留.⑤pH通过改变病毒颗粒的表面电荷,影响病毒的团聚,从而影响病毒在水环境中的持久性.⑥无机离子通过影响病毒的团聚和吸附性能,从而改变其活性.环境因素对病毒存活的影响可能因不同的病毒特性而异,因此,应进一步探讨水环境中2019-nCoV存活能力的变异性,2019-nCoV在废水和饮用水处理过程中的赋存与归趋,并对废水、娱乐水域和饮用水中的2019-nCoV进行长期监测和定量风险评估.
关键词:  病毒  水环境  生存  传播  环境因素
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.05.47
分类号:X52
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.41991315)
Influences of Environmental Factors on Survival and Transmission of Viruses in Water
WANG Junyu1,2, ZHAO Xiaoli1, LIANG Weigang1, NIU Lin1, WANG Xia1, WANG Xiaolei1
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Abstract:
Up to now, 2019-nCoV has spread all over the world. The detection of 2019-nCoV in feces and wastewater suggests the possibility of water-borne transmission. It is significant for the prevention and control of water-borne infections and the risk assessment of viruses to understand the impact of various environmental factors on the survival and transmission of water-borne viruses in the aqueous environment. These factors are investigated by studying the international related researches. It has been suggested that the survival and transmission of pathogenic viruses in the aqueous environment are closely related to the ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, pH, salinity, microorganisms and suspended particles in water. The main influences include: (1) The low temperature in water can greatly prolong the survival time of viruses and facilitate the spread of viruses, while the high temperature can accelerate the inactivation of viruses and reduce the transmission of viruses. (2) Ultraviolet irradiation can remove and inactivate viruses effectively by destroying the viral nucleic acids. (3) Microbes in water inactivate viruses by producing detrimental metabolites, or using the viral capsid as a source of nutrients. (4) The adsorption of viruses on a large number of suspended particles can significantly prolong the survival time of viruses, therefore enhancing viral transmission in water; In addition, suspended particles can also promote or hinder the transmission and retention of viruses in porous media. (5) Water pH affects the aggregation of viruses by changing their surface charges, thereby affecting their persistence in the aqueous environment. (6) Inorganic ions change the activity of viruses by affecting their aggregation and adsorption properties. The impacts of environmental factors on the survival of viruses may vary with different viral characteristics. Therefore, the studies on 2019-nCoV should be further explored, such as the survival variability in the aqueous environment, the occurrence and fate in wastewater and drinking water treatment process, as well as the long-term monitoring and quantitative risk assessment in wastewater, recreational water and drinking water.
Key words:  virus  aqueous environment  survival  transmission  environmental factors