引用本文:牛琳,梁为纲,汪霞,等.影响病毒在物体表面和空气中生存的因素分析[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(7):1589-1595.
NIU Lin,LIANG Weigang,WANG Xia,et al.Analysis of Factors Affecting Virus Survival on Object Surface and in Air[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(7):1589-1595.]
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影响病毒在物体表面和空气中生存的因素分析
牛琳1, 梁为纲1, 汪霞1, 穆云松2, 王珺瑜1,3, 武迪4, 赵晓丽1
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 中国人民大学环境学院, 北京 100872;3. 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875;4. 安徽建筑大学材料与化学工程学院, 安徽 合肥 230601
摘要:
新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)疫情严重危害人类生命安全和影响国家经济发展.截至目前,关于环境条件(湿度与温度)、空气污染及人为活动对2019-nCoV传播的文献鲜见报道.由于新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)采样困难,难以开展直接试验研究,因此通过对国内外其他类似病毒文献调研,探究影响病毒传播和生存的影响因素,以期为疫情防控和控制2019-nCoV传播提供指导.结果表明:①冠状病毒在低温低湿的环境中能够保持较长的存活时间与传播力,尤其在干燥物体表面停留时间更长,如冠状病毒能在温度为22~25℃、相对湿度(RH)为40%~45%的光滑物体表面存活5 d以上; ②同时,冠状病毒气溶胶在低温低湿的条件下也具有高存活率,提示在密闭环境中2019-nCoV气溶胶可能在温度为20~25℃、相对湿度为30%~50%的条件下具有较高的存活率;③颗粒物浓度越高,2019-nCoV传播的风险可能随之增加;④感染者的行为活动也对2019-nCoV的传播起着不可忽视的作用,应避免在人群中打喷嚏、咳嗽,并且用手、手肘或其他物品加以防护,降低病毒传播的可能性.综上,提出几点疫情防控的相关建议,如改善室内微环境和开展2019-nCoV的检测、灭活、影响因素、传播规律等相关研究工作.
关键词:  新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)  温度  湿度  颗粒物浓度  传播
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.05.37
分类号:X18;R373
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.41991315)
Analysis of Factors Affecting Virus Survival on Object Surface and in Air
NIU Lin1, LIANG Weigang1, WANG Xia1, MU Yunsong2, WANG Junyu1,3, WU Di4, ZHAO Xiaoli1
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. College of Environment&Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China;3. College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;4. College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei 230601, China
Abstract:
The contagion of the new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) not only seriously endangers the safety of human, but also affects the development of the national economy. There are few reports on factors influencing the transmission of 2019-nCoV, such as environmental conditions (humidity and temperature), air pollution, and human activities. It is difficult to sample and research 2019-nCoV directly. Therefore, it is significant to investigate the factors influencing the spread and survival of other similar viruses, which is instructional for the prevention of epidemics and the control of 2019-nCoV transmission. The results show that: (1) Low temperature and low humidity could prolong the lifetime and increase the transmission of coronavirus, especially on dry surfaces. For example, coronavirus can survive on a smooth surface at a temperature of 22-25 ℃ and a relative humidity (RH) of 40%-45% for more than 5 days. (2) Similarly, the survival rates of the aerosolized coronavirus is also high in a closed environment at low temperature and low humidity, 2019-nCoV may hold high survival rates at a temperature of 20-25 ℃ and a relative humidity of 30%-50%. (3) The higher the particle concentration, the risk of 2019-nCoV transmission may increase. (4) The behavior of infected people also plays a important role in the transmission of 2019-nCoV. The transmission of virus can be reduced by avoiding sneezing and coughing in the crowd, and blocking the transmission of droplets using hands, elbows or other objects. Considering the above analysis, some suggestions for the prevention and control the epidemics are made, such as improving the indoor microenvironment, investigating the detection, inactivation, influence factors and propagation characteristics of 2019-nCoV.
Key words:  new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19)  temperature  humidity  particulate concentration  spread