引用本文:曹圣洁,夏瑞,张远,等.南水北调中线工程调水前后汉江下游水生态环境特征与响应规律识别[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(6):1431-1439.
CAO Shengjie,XIA Rui,ZHANG Yuan,et al.Characteristics and Response of Ecological Environment in Downstream of Hanjiang River before and after Running of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(6):1431-1439.]
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南水北调中线工程调水前后汉江下游水生态环境特征与响应规律识别
曹圣洁1, 夏瑞2, 张远2, 李正炎1, 任逸轩3, 塔拉2
1. 中国海洋大学环境科学与工程学院, 山东 青岛 266100;2. 中国环境科学研究院水环境研究所, 北京 100012;3. 辽宁大学环境学院, 辽宁 沈阳 110036
摘要:
随着我国南水北调中线工程(简称“中线工程”)于2014年底正式通水运行,科学识别调水前后汉江下游水生态环境特征与响应规律,是国家重大水利工程优化调度的迫切管理需求.基于系统收集的2010—2017年汉江下游水文、气象、水质及水生态数据匹配资料,利用多种数据模型方法识别了中线工程调水前后汉江下游主要环境要素特征和响应规律,探索了导致河流生态退化的关键驱动因子及其贡献.结果表明:①中线工程开通后,受丹江口水库下泄流量减少的影响,汉江下游多年平均流量下降了11.5%,流量年内分配趋于不均匀,流量变幅增大,人类活动对汉江下游径流过程的影响更为显著.②调水后汉江下游ρ(TP)、ρ(TN)减小,武汉段ρ(Chla)和藻密度显著上升,汉江下游水华的发生对水文过程改变更加敏感.③基于GAM模型(广义相加模型)的相关分析,调水前后影响汉江下游藻密度变化的关键因子是流量和ρ(TP),调水前贡献率分别为27.7%和20.5%,调水后贡献率分别为65.4%和20.5%,调水后汉江下游流量对藻密度变化的贡献率显著升高,说明上游调水引起的汉江下游流量减小对水华暴发的影响十分明显,而TP等营养盐的影响相对减弱.
关键词:  特征识别  南水北调  中线工程  影响因子  汉江
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.07.30
分类号:X522
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.51879252);国家重点研发计划项目(No.2019YFC0408900);长江生态环境保护修复联合研究(一期)(No.2019-LHYJ-01-0103)
Characteristics and Response of Ecological Environment in Downstream of Hanjiang River before and after Running of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project
CAO Shengjie1, XIA Rui2, ZHANG Yuan2, LI Zhengyan1, REN Yixuan3, TA La2
1. College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China;2. Research Institute of Water Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;3. College of Environmental Siences, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036, China
Abstract:
In recent years, the impact of large-scale hydraulic engineering projects on river ecological environment has become a hot and advanced topic of global environmental concern. With the operation of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (referred to as the Middle Route Project) in late 2014, it is imperative to identify the characteristics and response of the ecological environment in the downstream of the Hanjiang River before and after water transfer. Based on the hydrological, meteorological, water quality and ecological data of the lower Hanjiang River collected from 2010-2017, the key driving factors and their contributions to the ecological degradation of the Hanjiang River were identified using a variety of data model methods. The results are shown as follows. Firstly, the average annual flow dropped by 11.5% due to the decrease of the discharge flow of Danjiangkou Reservoir after the operation of the Middle Route Project. The annual flow rate was more uneven with large variation, which was mainly caused by human activities. Secondly, ρ(TP) and ρ(TN) decreased whereas ρ(Chla) and algal density increased significantly after the water transfer, indicating high sensitivity of water bloom outbreak to hydrological changes in the downstream of the Hanjiang River after water transfer. Finally, the GAM model analysis demonstrated that the key factors affecting algal density were water flow and TP with a deviance of 27.7% and 20.5%, respectively before water transfer and 65.4% and 20.5% after water transfer. The deviance of water flow increased significantly after water transfer. The decrease in the flow of the lower Hanjiang River caused by upstream water transfer posed a significant impact on algal blooms, while nutrients such as TP had weak effect.
Key words:  characteristics identification  South-to-North Water Diversion  Middle Route Project  impact factor  Hanjiang River