引用本文:李照全,方平,黄博,等.洞庭湖区典型内湖表层沉积物中氮、磷和重金属空间分布与污染风险评价[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(6):1409-1420.
LI Zhaoquan,FANG Ping,HUANG Bo,et al.Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Typical Internal Lakes in Dongting Lake Area[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(6):1409-1420.]
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洞庭湖区典型内湖表层沉积物中氮、磷和重金属空间分布与污染风险评价
李照全1, 方平2, 黄博1, 卢少勇3, 万群1, 熊剑1, 张光贵4
1. 湖南省岳阳生态环境监测中心, 湖南 岳阳 414000;2. 湘阴县环境监测站, 湖南 湘阴 414600;3. 中国环境科学研究院, 湖泊水污染治理与生态修复技术国家工程实验室, 国家环境保护洞庭湖科学观测研究站, 北京 100012;4. 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 湖南 岳阳 414000
摘要:
为了解洞庭湖区内湖表层沉积物中氮、磷和重金属污染空间分布及其生态风险,分别对南湖、黄盖湖、冶湖、鹤龙湖、洋沙湖、湘阴东湖、华容东湖等7个内湖进行现场调查及表层沉积物采样,采用主成分分析法、相关分析法分析了氮、磷和重金属的来源,同时运用综合污染指数法(FF)、地积累指数法(Igeo)与潜在生态风险指数法(RI)评价内湖的污染现状及其生态风险.结果表明:①南湖w(TN)高于洞庭湖区土壤背景值,累积倍数为0.03倍;华容东湖、南湖、冶湖、湘阴东湖、洋沙湖、黄盖湖w(TP)均高于洞庭湖区土壤背景值,累积倍数分别为1.94、1.63、0.84、0.53、0.28、0.26倍;各内湖中w(Cd)、w(Hg)、w(Cu)、w(Pb)、w(Cr)、w(Zn)、w(Ni)均高于洞庭湖沉积物背景值,累积倍数平均值分别为1.09、2.29、1.24、1.62、0.66、0.44、1.78倍.②主成分分析与相关性分析表明,第1主成分TN、Cu、Cr、Ni的质量分数主要受农业生产及养殖业影响,第2主成分Cd、Hg、Pb、Zn的质量分数受工业活动影响最大,第3主成分TP、As、Sb的质量分数主要受生活污染影响.③综合污染指数表明,南湖表层沉积物氮、磷面临重度污染,华容东湖、黄盖湖面临中度污染,湘阴东湖、鹤龙湖、洋沙湖面临轻度污染.④地积累指数表明,南湖表层沉积物重金属面临严重污染,黄盖湖、鹤龙湖面临重污染,湘阴东湖、华容东湖、冶湖面临偏中度污染,洋沙湖面临轻度污染.⑤潜在生态风险指数表明,南湖、湘阴东湖表层沉积物重金属面临较高风险,其余5个内湖面临中等风险.研究显示,洞庭湖区内湖表层沉积物不同程度受氮、磷及重金属污染,南湖综合污染尤为严重,内源污染应引起重视.
关键词:  内湖  表层沉积物  TN  TP  重金属  生态风险
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.04.15
分类号:X524
基金项目:湖南省自然科学基金项目(No.2019JJ40291);湖南省生态环境厅科研项目(No.2019120525)
Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Typical Internal Lakes in Dongting Lake Area
LI Zhaoquan1, FANG Ping2, HUANG Bo1, LU Shaoyong3, WAN Qun1, XIONG Jian1, ZHANG Guanggui4
1. Yueyang Eco-Environmental Monitoring Centre of Hunan Province, Yueyang 414000, China;2. Xiangyin Environmental Monitoring Station, Xiangyin 414600, China;3. State Environmental Protection Scientific Observation Station of Dongting Lake, National Engineering Laboratory for Lake Water Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;4. Dongting Lake Eco-Environmental Monitoring Centre of Hunan Province, Yueyang 414000, China
Abstract:
In order to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological risk of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of internal lakes in Dongting Lake area, field investigations and surface sediment sampling were carried out in Nanhu Lake, Huanggai Lake, Yehu Lake, Helong Lake, Yangsha Lake, Donghu Lake of Xiangyin and Donghu Lake of Huarong. The sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals were discussed combining with the methods of principal component analysis and correlation analysis. Meanwhile the pollution status and the potential component risk of internal lakes were evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index (FF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Hakanson potential ecological risk index (RI).The results showed that: (1) The w(TN) in Nanhu Lake and w(TP) in Donghu Lake of Huarong, Nanhu Lake,Yehu Lake, Donghu Lake of Xiangyin, Yangsha Lake and Huanggai Lake were 0.03, 1.94, 1.63, 0.84, 0.53, 0.28 and 0.26 times higher than the soil background values in Dongting Lake area, respectively. The values of w(Cd), w(Hg), w(Cu), w(Pb), w(Cr), w(Zn) and w(Ni) in all studied internal lakes were higher than the background values of Dongting Lake sediments,with the average enrichment extent of 1.09, 2.29, 1.24, 1.62, 0.66, 0.44 and 1.78 times, respectively. (2) The results of principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that the content of TN, Cu, Cr and Ni in the first principal components were mainly affected by agriculture and aquaculture, and the content of Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn in the second principal components were primarily affected by industrial activities. The content of TP, As and Sb in the third principal components were mainly influenced by domestic pollution. (3) The comprehensive pollution index indicated that the nitrogen and phosphorus in surface sediments of Nanhu Lake were seriously polluted, and were moderately polluted in Donghu Lake of Huarong and Huanggai Lake. Slight pollution of nitrogen and phosphorus was found in Donghu Lake of Xiangyin, Helong Lake and Yangsha Lake. (4) The results of geoaccumulation index showed that heavy metals in surface sediments of Nanhu Lake were seriously polluted, and were heavily polluted in Huanggai Lake and Helonghu Lake. Heavy metals in Donghu Lake of Xiangyin, Donghu Lake of Huarong and Yehu Lake were moderately polluted, while Yangsha Lake was slightly polluted. (5) The potential ecological risk index demonstrated that the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of Nanhu Lake and Donghu Lake of Xiangyin was at higher level than that of the other five internal lakes, while the latter five lakes were at moderate risk. The results show that nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals in surface sediments of internal lakes were polluted in different degrees, and the comprehensive pollution of Nanhu Lake was particularly serious. Therefore, the internal pollution should be paid attention to in internal lakes in Dongting Lake area.
Key words:  internal lakes  surface sediments  total nitrogen (TN)  total phosphorus (TP)  heavy metals  ecological risk