引用本文:姜昀,王文燕,史常艳,等.生态功能改善目标下的青海省“三线一单”编制实践[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1293-1299.
JIANG Yun,WANG Wenyan,SHI Changyan,et al.Compilation and Practice of ‘Three Lines and One List’ in Qinghai Province under the Objective of Ecological Function Improvement[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1293-1299.]
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生态功能改善目标下的青海省“三线一单”编制实践
姜昀, 王文燕, 史常艳, 李元实
生态环境部环境工程评估中心, 北京 100012
摘要:
根据青海省生态功能定位,以生态功能改善为目标,分析了生态功能改善实现的关键点,包括全面提升自然生态系统稳定性和生态服务功能,保障三江源地区水质和水量,协调处理矿产资源开发与生态环境保护之间关系等,运用“原因—效应—响应”概念模型,提出了基于“三线一单”的生态功能改善实现路径.结果表明:①通过识别生态空间实现生态功能维护和改善.青海省“三线一单”将全省72.25%的国土面积识别为生态空间,布局上涵盖了国家重点生态功能区、国家重要生态功能区、生物多样性优先保护区、各类保护地等,实现了对三江源长江、黄河、澜沧江三大河流源头区以及青海湖、祁连山诸河源区自然生态系统的完整保护.②通过确立水环境质量底线、水资源利用上线实现水资源保护和水环境改善.青海省“三线一单”针对河湟地区生态需水保障问题,对湟水河干支流32个控制断面提出了生态基流控制指标;同时,划分了95个水环境控制单元,确立了各控制单元不同时期水环境质量底线,针对水环境质量超标地区提出了减排目标,以实现水量保障和水质改善.③通过环境管控单元划定和准入清单编制实现环境分区管控.青海省“三线一单”共划定563个环境管控单元,其中重点管控单元将工业园区和矿区划为独立管控单元;根据产业园区发展定位和区域生态环境特征、矿区开采的环境影响特点,提出相应的管控要求,实现国土全覆盖、差别化的生态环境分区管控.研究显示,青海省“三线一单”成果可支撑青海省生态功能的维护和改善.
关键词:  “三线一单”  生态功能  生态环境分区管控  青海省
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.33
分类号:X32
基金项目:
Compilation and Practice of ‘Three Lines and One List’ in Qinghai Province under the Objective of Ecological Function Improvement
JIANG Yun, WANG Wenyan, SHI Changyan, LI Yuanshi
Appraisal Center for Environmental and Engineering, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Based on the ecological function orientation of Qinghai Province, this research analyzed the key points of improving ecological function, such as comprehensively promoting the stability of natural ecosystems and ecological service functions, ensuring water quality and quantity in the Three River Source Region, and dealing with the relationship between mineral resource development and ecological environmental protection. The government of Qinghai Province has launched the work of ‘Three Lines and One List’, including identification of ecological spaces, environmental quality bottom lines, resource utilization ceilings and list of ecology, environment and resources. Through the conceptual model of ‘cause-effect-response’ and the identification of ‘Three Lines and One List’, the path of ecological function improvement has been established in Qinghai Province. (1) The results show that 72.25% of the total area has been designated as the priority protected area in Qinghai Province. The layouts cover the National Key Ecological Function Zones, the National Important Ecological Function Zones, the Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation and various types of protected areas, and realize the complete protection of the natural ecosystems at the ‘Three Rivers’ Source Areas including the Yangtze River, the Yellow River, the Lancang River, and the Source Regions of Qinghai Lake and Qilian Mountains. (2) In order to guarantee the ecological water demands in the Hehuang Region, this work has proposed the control indicators of ecological base flow in 32 control sections of the Huangshui River. We have also delineated 95 units of water environment control in Qinghai Province, and have established the bottom line of water environment quality in each control unit under different periods. Emission reduction targets have been proposed in the areas exceeding water quality standards in order to achieve stable water quantity and improve water quality. (3) 563 units of environmental management units and control area have been established in Qinghai Province through the work of ‘Three Lines and One List’. The corresponding management and control requirements have been proposed in industrial parks and mining areas based on the regional characteristics of ecological environment and the different types of minerals. This study shows that the results of the ‘Three Lines and One List’ can support the maintenance and improvement of ecological functions in Qinghai Province.
Key words:  Three Lines and One List’  ecological function  regional management and control system of ecological conservation and environmental protection  Qinghai Province