引用本文:赵玉婷,李亚飞,董林艳,等.长江经济带典型流域重化产业环境风险及对策[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1247-1253.
ZHAO Yuting,LI Yafei,DONG Linyan,et al.Environmental Risks and Countermeasures of Heavy Chemical Industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1247-1253.]
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长江经济带典型流域重化产业环境风险及对策
赵玉婷, 李亚飞, 董林艳, 姚懿函, 李小敏, 孙启宏
中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
摘要:
长江经济带工业企业密集,环境风险点多,产业结构和布局不合理造成累积性、叠加性和潜在性的生态环境问题突出,制约了其持续健康发展.根据自然资源、社会经济和产业发展特征,选择3个典型流域(区域)(即重化产业最密集、人口最密集,重化产业布局性矛盾最突出的长江湖口以下干流区域;重大调水工程下游减水河段与涉水产业重点发展的汉江流域;生态系统脆弱的喀斯特地貌区与磷矿资源开发强度高的乌江流域)进行分析,并识别流域重化产业发展可能带来的环境风险问题及其演变趋势.基于保障“清洁长江”与“安全长江”建设的总体目标,按照“守底线、优格局、提质量、保安全”的调控思路,提出长江经济带典型流域重化产业绿色发展的优化调控对策和差别化生态环境保护与环境风险防控建议,为推动长江经济带的实施精准治理提供支撑,主要包括:①长江湖口以下干流区域以保障人居环境安全为目标,以各类工业园区为抓手优化布局,提升区域环境风险防控能力建设,研究制定长江沿岸地区持久性有机污染物控制对策;②汉江流域以流域环境承载力为硬约束,从国家产业政策战略高度调整汉江中下游的产业发展战略,严格控制高耗水和水污染产业的持续发展;③乌江流域以保障下游库区水质为目标,严控喀斯特地貌区域新增磷化工产能,研究喀斯特地貌区实施磷化工产业废水特别排放限值.
关键词:  长江经济带  典型流域  重化产业  环境风险  对策建议
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.04.19
分类号:
基金项目:区域和行业重大发展战略环境评价-长江经济带(中下游地区)战略环境评价项目(No.2110199)
Environmental Risks and Countermeasures of Heavy Chemical Industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
ZHAO Yuting, LI Yafei, DONG Linyan, YAO Yihan, LI Xiaomin, SUN Qihong
Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Intensive industrial enterprises, unreasonable industrial structure and layout have caused cumulative and potential ecological problems and environmental risks, which have become the bottleneck of sustainable and green development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Based on the characteristics of natural resources, the current economic and social development situation, and the industrial development phase of the Yangtze River Basins, this paper selects three typical river basins to conduct in-depth research. The environmental risks of the three typical river basins are: (1) There are layout contradictions between the heavy chemical industry below Hukou basin of the Yangtze River with the most intensive heavy chemical industry and the densest population. (2) There are government program contradictions between key industrial development and national and provincial water transfer project in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River. (3) There are contradictions between development and protection in the Wujiang River Basin that has high development intensity of phosphate rock resources and is located in a karst landform area with fragile ecosystem. Different environmental risks and the trend of heavy chemical industry layout and regional comprehensive development strategy in the typical basin are analyzed. Based on goal-oriented (goal of the Yangtze River environmental protection) and problem-oriented process (solving the problems between the living spaces and industrial spaces in the Yangtze River Economic Belt), complied with the general idea of ‘keeping the bottom line, optimizing the layouts, improving quality and ensuring safety’, this paper aims to ensure that the goals of ‘Clean Yangtze River’ and ‘Safe Yangtze River’ are achieved. As a reference for the accurate protection strategies and management measures of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, this paper proposes optimal measures for the green development of heavy industries and recommendations for differentiated ecological environmental protection of the typical watersheds of the Yangtze River Economic Belt: (1) The main stream below the Hukou of the Yangtze River should ensure the safety of human-being, optimizes the layout with industrial parks, improve the capacity of regional environmental risk prevention, and study the countermeasures for persistent organic pollutants control in the Yangtze River coastal area; (2) The Hanjiang River Basin should take the environmental capacity of the basin as the hardcore constraint, adjust the national industrial policy strategy in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River, and strictly control the high-water consumption and high-water pollutions industries; (3) The Wujiang River Basin should ensure the water quality of the downstream reservoir area, strictly control the new phosphorus chemical plants in the karst landform area, and study the implementation of the special discharge limit of phosphorus in the karst area.
Key words:  Yangtze River Economic Belt  major river basins  heavy chemical industry  environmental risks  countermeasures