引用本文:吴琼慧,刘志学,陈业阳,等.长江经济带“三磷”行业环境管理现状及对策建议[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1233-1240.
WU Qionghui,LIU Zhixue,CHEN Yeyang,et al.Status and Countermeasures of Environmental Management of the ‘Three Phosphorus’ Industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1233-1240.]
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长江经济带“三磷”行业环境管理现状及对策建议
吴琼慧1, 刘志学1, 陈业阳1,2, 滕巍1, 刘晓帆3, 戴永立1
1. 生态环境部环境工程评估中心, 北京 100012;2. 北京化工大学化学学院, 化工资源有效利用国家重点实验室, 北京 100029;3. 加州大学圣塔芭芭拉分校, 加州 圣塔芭芭拉 93117
摘要:
“十三五”期间总磷成为长江经济带水体首要污染因子,长江流域的总磷污染开始引起各方面的高度关注.我国“三磷”〔磷矿、磷化工(含磷肥、含磷农药、黄磷制造等)、磷石膏库〕企业主要分布在长江经济带四川省、云南省、贵州省、重庆市、湖南省、湖北省、江苏省等7省市,企业分布与长江总磷污染程度呈正相关.介绍了我国“三磷”行业产业发展现状,全面梳理长江经济带7省市“三磷”行业环境污染现状,进一步指出现阶段“三磷”行业存在的主要环境问题:①磷石膏库防渗不到位、渗滤液无法有效收集; ②磷肥企业雨污分流不完善、初期雨水收集设施不规范; ③黄磷企业“点天灯”、无组织废气排放控制不严; ④含磷农药企业母液处理回收难度大; ⑤磷矿矿井水不能稳定达标排放、贮矿场雨污分流不彻底.针对上述问题,提出规范化整治建议,即完善企业雨污分流以及加强黄磷尾气综合利用、含磷农药母液处理、磷石膏综合利用等.结合国家层面宏观管控要求,剖析了现阶段“三磷”行业环境管理政策存在的问题,提出针对性对策建议:①完善“三磷”标准规范制修订工作; ②继续强化“三磷”排查整治专项行动; ③加强环境综合监管力度及效能; ④政策层面推动磷石膏综合利用.
关键词:  长江经济带  磷矿  磷化工  磷石膏  水污染
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.28
分类号:X321
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(No.2017ZX07301003-03)
Status and Countermeasures of Environmental Management of the ‘Three Phosphorus’ Industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
WU Qionghui1, LIU Zhixue1, CHEN Yeyang1,2, TENG Wei1, LIU Xiaofan3, DAI Yongli1
1. Appraisal Center for Environment & Engineering Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100012, China;2. State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, College of Chemistry, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China;3. University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara 93117, the United States of America
Abstract:
Since total phosphorus become the primary pollution factor of the Yangtze River Economic Belt during the ‘13th Five-Year Plan’,total phosphorus pollution in the Yangtze River Basin has aroused extensive attention. ‘Three phosphorus’ (phosphorus ore, phosphorous chemical industry (phosphorus-containing fertilizers, phosphorus-containing pesticides, yellow phosphorus manufacturing, etc.), phosphogypsum reservoir) enterprises are located in Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province, Guizhou Province, Chongqing City, Hunan Province, Hubei Province, Jiangsu Province. We found that the concentration of enterprises is positively related to the total phosphorus pollution in the Yangtze River. This article introduces the status quo of industrial development of the ‘three phosphorus’ industry in China, comprehensively sorts out the current status of environmental pollution of the ‘three phosphorus’ industry in the seven provinces and cities of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and further refers to the main environmental problems of the ‘three phosphorus’ industry in the emerging stage: (1) Insufficient anti-seepage and ineffective collection of leachate of the phosphogypsum reservoir; (2) Inadequate rain and sewage shunts in phosphate fertilizer companies and irregular initial rainwater collection facilities; (3) Yellow phosphorous enterprises have ‘strict lighting’ and poor controls of unorganized exhaust emission; (4) Difficult to treat and recycle the ML of phosphorus-containing pesticide; (5) The treatment of underground phosphate mine water cannot meet the discharge standards steadily and rainwater and sewage are not completely transferred to the storage yard. For the above problems, it is proposed to strengthen the environmental management capacity of enterprises, use the principles of sewage diversion to transform wastewater systems, strengthen the comprehensive utilization of yellow phosphorus tail gas, treat phosphorus-containing pesticide mother liquor, and comprehensive utilize phosphogypsum. This article analyzes the existing problems of the environmental management policy of the ‘three phosphorus’ industry in combination with national-level macro control requirements, proposes the targeted countermeasures; (2) Improve the standardization and revision of the ‘three phosphorus’ standards; (2) Strengthen the ‘three phosphorus’ investigation and rectification special action; (3) Strengthen the intensity and effectiveness of comprehensive environmental supervision; (4) Promote the comprehensive utilization of phosphogypsum at the policy level.
Key words:  Yangtze River Economic Belt  phosphate rock  phosphorus chemical industry  phosphogypsum  comprehensive utilization of water pollution