引用本文:王孝程,解鹏飞,李晴,等.长江口海域生态环境状况及保护对策[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1197-1205.
WANG Xiaocheng,XIE Pengfei,LI Qing,et al.Ecological Environment of the Yangtze Estuary and Protection Countermeasures[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1197-1205.]
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长江口海域生态环境状况及保护对策
王孝程1,2, 解鹏飞1, 李晴1, 张金勇1, 李宏俊1
1. 国家海洋环境监测中心, 辽宁 大连 116023;2. 自然资源部海洋灾害预报技术重点实验室, 北京 100081
摘要:
为加快推进长江口海域的生态环境保护和修复工作,结合长江经济带大保护,系统总结分析了近20年长江口环境质量和生态监控区的监测结果.结果表明:①长江口海域生态系统长期处于亚健康状态.②长江径流总量呈现波动变化,年均流量无明显的变化,而长江口海域海水环境状况一直较差.③营养盐污染严重,主要污染物是无机氮和活性磷酸盐;浮游生物和底栖生物群落结构不稳定,存在生境破碎化严重、外来生物入侵、赤潮频发、低氧区等诸多生态问题.为加强长江口海域生态环境的保护与修复,建议:①加强顶层设计,推进落实陆海统筹;②科学规划临港产业布局,加强涉海产业的污染管理;③加强污染物入海排放管控,提升海洋环境保护意识;④保障海洋生态建设资金,强化海洋生态保护与建设.
关键词:  长江口  生态环境  变化趋势  生态问题  保护对策
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.29
分类号:X321
基金项目:自然资源部海洋灾害预报技术重点实验室开放基金项目(No.LOMF1805);国家海洋环境监测中心博士科研启动经费项目
Ecological Environment of the Yangtze Estuary and Protection Countermeasures
WANG Xiaocheng1,2, XIE Pengfei1, LI Qing1, ZHANG Jinyong1, LI Hongjun1
1. National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023, China;2. Key Laboratory of Marine Hazards Forecasting, Ministry of Natural Resources, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
In order to promote the protection and restoration of the Yangtze estuary under the protection strategy of Yangtze River Economic Belt, we systematically analyzed the monitoring data of the Yangtze estuary marine ecological monitoring programs in recent 20 years. The results indicated that the ecosystem was in a sub-health long-term state. The total runoff fluctuated while there was no obvious change in the annual average flow. However, it is noteworthy that the condition of seawater was poor. Nutrients were main pollutants (i.e. inorganic nitrogen and phosphate). Many other problems such as biodiversity loss, damaged habitat, alien invasion, frequent red tide, and low-oxygen zones also exist. We recommend improving the protection and restoration of the ecological environment from the following aspects: (1) Strengthen the top-level design and promote coordinated land and sea development; (2) Plan and design the layout of port-vicinity industry scientifically and improve the pollution management of sea-related industries; (3) Tighten the control of pollutant discharge and increase the awareness of marine environmental protection; (4) Ensure sufficient funds for marine ecological construction and strengthen its protection and construction.
Key words:  Yangtze estuary  ecological environment  health condition  ecological problem  protection countermeasure