引用本文:卢金友,林莉.汉江生态经济带水生态环境问题及对策[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1179-1186.
LU Jinyou,LIN Li.Problems and Countermeasures on Water Eco-Environment in Hanjiang River Ecological Economic Belt[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1179-1186.]
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汉江生态经济带水生态环境问题及对策
卢金友, 林莉
水利部长江水利委员会长江科学院, 湖北 武汉 430010
摘要:
汉江生态经济带是国家战略水资源保障区、内河流域保护开发示范区、中西部联动发展试验区、长江流域绿色发展先行区,加快区域经济社会发展对于全国地区协调发展具有重要意义.多年的高强度开发和剧烈的人类活动造成汉江生态经济带水生态环境问题严峻,已成为制约汉江生态经济带迈向高质量发展的瓶颈.通过系统剖析发现,汉江生态经济带存在的主要水生态环境问题包括重要水源地丹江口水库水安全保障不足、汉江中下游水生态受损、汉江部分支流水污染严重等.丹江口水库总体水质良好,但水质保障工作存在部分入库支流污染形势依然严峻、支流库湾水华发生风险加剧、库周及上游面源污染未得到有效控制和消落带管理薄弱等不足.汉江中下游存在硅藻水华频发和鱼类资源量大幅减少等水生态问题,同时中下游部分支流水质不达标,严重影响汉江水质.在此基础上,提出相应对策建议,主要包括切实做好丹江口水库水质安全保障、科学开展基于生态流量保障的生态调度、建立生态环境协同保护机制、完善南水北调中线水源地生态补偿机制、加强生态环境保护科技支撑等.
关键词:  水生态环境  形势问题  对策建议  汉江生态经济带
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.21
分类号:X21
基金项目:长江生态环境保护修复联合研究项目(第一期)(No.2019-LHYJ-01-0209);中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目(No.CKSF2019380SH)
Problems and Countermeasures on Water Eco-Environment in Hanjiang River Ecological Economic Belt
LU Jinyou, LIN Li
Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute of Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Wuhan 430010, China
Abstract:
The Hanjiang River Ecological Economic Belt is a national strategic water resources security zone, a demonstration zone for inland river basin protection and development, a pilot zone for the coordinated development of central and western regions, and a pilot zone for the green development of the Yangtze River Basin. The rapid regional socio-economic development is of great significance to the coordinated development of the entire country. However, years of high-intensity development and intense human activities have caused severe water eco-environment problems, which has become a bottleneck restricting the high quality-development of the Hanjiang River Ecological Economic Belt. This paper systematically analyzed the water eco-environmental problems such as the security risks of drinking water sources of Danjiangkou Reservoir, injured aquatic condition in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River, and pollution of the tributaries of the middle and lower reaches in the Hanjiang River Ecological Economic Belt. In general, the water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir is good, but there are still some deficiencies in water quality protection work, such as severe pollution of some tributaries, risk of water blooms in the tributaries and bays, lack of effective control of non-point source pollution around and upstream the reservoir, and weak management of hydro-fluctuation belt. In the middle and lower reaches of the Han River, the diatom blooms frequently occur, and fish resources greatly decrease. In addition, the water quality of some tributaries in the middle and lower reaches is not up to standard, seriously affecting the water quality of the Han River. Some countermeasures on water quality safety guarantee of Danjiangkou Reservoir, ecological operation based on ecological flow guarantee, cooperative protection mechanism, ecological compensation for water sources of the middle route of South-North Water Diversion Project, and scientific and technological support for environmental protection are suggested.
Key words:  water eco-environment  current situation and problems  countermeasures and suggestions  Hanjiang River Ecological Economic Belt