引用本文:陈善荣,何立环,林兰钰,等.近40年来长江干流水质变化研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1119-1128.
CHEN Shanrong,HE Lihuan,LIN Lanyu,et al.Change Trends of Surface Water Quality in the Mainstream of the Yangtze River during the Past Four Decades[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1119-1128.]
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近40年来长江干流水质变化研究
陈善荣, 何立环, 林兰钰, 方德昆, 张凤英
中国环境监测总站, 北京 100012
摘要:
为掌握长江水质状况及其变化趋势,开展1981—2019年长江干流水质变化特征研究.系统总结了39年间长江干流地表水环境监测情况,以CODMn、NH3-N和TP为研究因子,探讨了长江干流水环境质量变化规律;同时,选取有连续监测结果的断面,分析了长江上游、中游和下游不同断面近40年来的水质变化特征.结果表明:①1981—2019年,我国水环境监测迅速发展,长江干流水环境质量监测在监测点位、监测频次、监测项目和水环境质量等方面都发生了较大变化.②长江干流地表水水质总体相对较好,上游水质好于中下游,上游水体中ρ(CODMn)、ρ(NH3-N)和ρ(TP)均低于中下游.③1981—2005年各江段ρ(CODMn)和ρ(NH3-N)年均值变化特征不同,在2006年之后大体呈逐渐降低的变化趋势.④2006年以来,长江干流水质呈好转态势,水体中ρ(CODMn)、ρ(NH3-N)和ρ(TP)均呈逐年下降趋势.⑤近年来,长江干流断面中TP的污染程度高于CODMn和NH3-N,应引起重视.研究显示,政府的相关管理措施对长江干流水质改善具有正面推动作用,极大改善了长江流域总体水质,也促进了长江干流水质的进一步好转.
关键词:  长江  地表水环境  质量变化  污染因子
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.03.07
分类号:X82;X196
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.41601608);国家重点研发计划项目(No.2016YFD0800904-3)
Change Trends of Surface Water Quality in the Mainstream of the Yangtze River during the Past Four Decades
CHEN Shanrong, HE Lihuan, LIN Lanyu, FANG Dekun, ZHANG Fengying
China National Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
In order to understand the status and change trends of water quality of the Yangtze River, the characteristics of water quality change in the main stream of the Yangtze River during 1981 to 2019 were studied, and the monitoring history of surface water quality in the main stream of the Yangtze River was summarized. The permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were selected as research factors to explore and analyze the change trends of surface water environment in the main stream of the Yangtze River. The water quality change characteristics of different continuous monitoring sections in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were analyzed. The results show that: (1) From 1981 to 2019, water quality monitoring developed rapidly, and the water quality monitoring of the mainstream of the Yangtze River underwent significant changes in the number of monitoring sections, monitoring frequency, monitoring items, and surface water quality standards. (2) The surface water quality of the mainstream of the Yangtze River was relatively good; the water quality in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River was better than that of the middle and lower reaches; the ρ(CODMn), ρ(NH3-N) and ρ(TP) in the upstream water were lower than those in the middle and lower reaches. (3) The annual average concentrations of permanganate index and ammonia nitrogen showed different changes during the period from 1981 to 2005, and generally showed a gradually decreasing trend after 2006. (4) Since 2006, the water quality in the mainstream of the Yangtze River improved gradually; the ρ(CODMn), ρ(NH3-N) and ρ(TP) showed decreasing trends. (5) In recent years, the pollution degree of total phosphorus in the main stream of the Yangtze River was higher than the permanganate index and ammonia nitrogen, and more attention should be paid. Relevant government measures had a positive effect on the improvement of water quality of the Yangtze River, which has greatly improved the overall water quality of the Yangtze River Basin and further improved the water quality of the main stream of the Yangtze River.
Key words:  Yangtze River  surface water quality  change trends  pollution index