引用本文:杨荣金,孙美莹,傅伯杰,等.长江流域生态系统可持续管理策略[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(5):1091-1099.
YANG Rongjin,SUN Meiying,FU Bojie,et al.Sustainable Management Strategy of Ecosystems in the Yangtze River Basin[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(5):1091-1099.]
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长江流域生态系统可持续管理策略
杨荣金1, 孙美莹2, 傅伯杰2,3, 张乐1, 赵文武2, 张钰莹1
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012;2. 北京师范大学, 北京 100875;3. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085
摘要:
长江流域涉及长江经济带发展和长三角一体化发展两大国家区域协调发展战略,但生态环境问题仍然是长江流域可持续发展面临的严峻挑战,加强长江流域生态系统可持续管理策略研究具有重大意义.长江流域的环境管理策略大致经历了以水量管理、污染物排放总量管理和水质目标管理三个阶段.在统一生态环境监管职能、实现五个“打通”的新形势下,长江流域生态环境管理策略必将由水质目标管理快速向生态系统可持续管理转变.在分析长江流域生态系统保护修复取得的积极进展和面临的严峻形势的基础上,提出了长江流域生态系统可持续管理策略:①规划和建设服务于应急预警和管理决策的长江生态系统观测网络,推动不同层级、不同职能部门、空天地一体化的多源数据融合,提高生态环境监测网络的数据时空精度和反应速度,开展水陆统筹、“山水林田湖草”生命共同体综合观测;②加强长江生态系统结构、过程、功能和服务的综合性、整体性研究,主要开展长江流域生态系统综合研究、重点区域生态系统研究和突出生态问题专题研究,不断创新科研与管理深度融合的科研模式,把论文写在祖国大地上;③制定长江社会-经济-自然复合生态系统保护修复可持续发展目标及分阶段分区域目标,促进水资源、水环境、水生态、陆域生态和水陆交错带的持续改善以及生态环境系统与社会经济系统的持续协同;④提出长江生态系统保护修复的整体性、综合性和针对性、差异化的解决方案,推动长江流域生态系统健康可持续发展目标的早日实现和重点区域、突出问题的尽快解决.
关键词:  长江流域  生态系统  可持续发展  管理策略  生态安全
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2020.04.20
分类号:X321
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(No.2016YFC0502100)
Sustainable Management Strategy of Ecosystems in the Yangtze River Basin
YANG Rongjin1, SUN Meiying2, FU Bojie2,3, ZHANG Le1, ZHAO Wenwu2, ZHANG Yuying1
1. Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;3. Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
Abstract:
The Yangtze River Basin involves the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta. However, ecological and environmental problems are still serious challenges for the sustainable development of the Yangtze River Basin. It is of great significance to strengthen the study of sustainable management strategy of the ecosystem in the Yangtze River Basin. The environmental management strategy of the Yangtze River Basin has gone through three stages: water quantity management, total pollutant discharge management and water quality target management. Under the new situation of unifying the ecological and environmental supervision function and realizing five ‘connections’, the ecological and environmental management strategy in the Yangtze River Basin will change rapidly from water quality target management to sustainable ecosystem management. Based on the analysis of the positive progress and severe situation of ecosystem conservation and restoration in the Yangtze River Basin, the sustainable management strategy of ecosystem in the Yangtze River Basin is put forward: (1) Planning and construction of the Yangtze River ecosystem observation network serving emergency early warning and management decision making. Promoting multi-source data fusion at different levels, different functional departments and air-sky-earth integration. Improving the data space-time accuracy and response speed of the ecological environment monitoring network. Carrying out integrated observation of land and water, landscape, forest, lake and grass life community. (2) Strengthen the comprehensive and holistic study of the structure, processes, functions and services of the Yangtze River ecosystem. To focus on the integrated study of the ecosystem in the Yangtze River Basin. To focus on regional ecosystem studies and highlight ecological issues. To innovate constantly the research model of deep integration of scientific research and management. (3) Formulate the sustainable development goal of the protection and restoration of the Yangtze River socio-economic-natural complex ecosystem to promote the continuous improvement of water resources, water environment, water ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems and land and water interlaced zones. (4) Propose holistic, comprehensive, targeted and differentiated solutions for the protection and restoration of the Yangtze River ecosystem to promote the early realization of the goal of healthy and sustainable development of the ecosystem in the Yangtze River Basin and the solution of key areas and outstanding problems as soon as possible.
Key words:  Yangtze River Basin  ecosystem  sustainable development  management strategy  ecological security