引用本文:范小杉,何萍,侯利萍,等.国外生态阈值研究进展及启示[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(3):691-699.
FAN Xiaoshan,HE Ping,HOU Liping,et al.Review of International Research Progress on Ecological Threshold[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(3):691-699.]
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国外生态阈值研究进展及启示
范小杉1,2, 何萍1,2, 侯利萍1,2, 孟晓杰1,2
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
生态阈值是促使生态系统属性发生突变的环境变量的值,20世纪70年代以来在国外生态学界掀起研究热潮.通过详细总结国外生态阈值研究内容、研究方法与成果实践应用状况,反映出生态阈值研究对于理解生态系统转变过程、制定生态标准以及实施环境管理决策具有重要支撑意义;强调生态阈值研究应以正确把握时间和空间尺度、理解系统要素相互作用机制及阈值检测数学模型的生态学意义为前提;由于背景干扰和人为压力增加了物种及其生态系统的敏感性,迄今只有少量的带有阈值的标准和制度尝试性应用于国外资源环境管理实践领域.结合当前国内生态环境管理标准制定的科技支撑需求,建议谨慎将国内外阈值研究成果应用于国内管理实践,同时针对国内重点地区突出的生态环境问题开展生态阈值研究,以夯实"三线一单"资源环境管理制度科学基石,提升生态学研究实践应用价值.
关键词:  生态阈值  物种  生态系统  研究进展  变量  应用  管理
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.10.13
分类号:X86
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No.2017YFC0506601,2016YFC050350402);国家自然科学基金项目(No.41501581)
Review of International Research Progress on Ecological Threshold
FAN Xiaoshan1,2, HE Ping1,2, HOU Liping1,2, MENG Xiaojie1,2
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. State Environment Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-Process and Function Assessment, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Ecological threshold is the point where there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem property or function. It has been a research hotspot since 1970s in field of western ecology research. The significance of environmental threshold research in the management standards formulation and environmental management decision-making is reflected by summarizing the foreign research contents, research methods and applications to management of ecological thresholds. The views were emphasized in threshold researches, including confirming the scale of time and space scale about ecosystem correctly, and understanding the interaction mechanisms of system elements and the ecological significance of mathematical models to identify the threshold. Due to the sensitivity of ecosystem, the thresholds will increase in the presence of background interference and human pressure. It is very difficult to detect ecological thresholds and only a small number of thresholds have been applied to the management practices tentatively. Finally, combined with the current scientific and technological supporting requirements formulated by the domestic eco-environment management standards, the threshold research results should be carefully applied to management practices, and the ecological threshold researches on the prominent ecological and environmental issues in the key areas in China should be carried out as soon as possible to consolidate the scientific basis of environmental management policies.
Key words:  ecological threshold  species  ecosystem  research progress  variables  application  management