引用本文:闫苗苗,张海涵,钊珍芳,等.生物脱氮技术中好氧反硝化细菌的代谢及应用研究进展[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(3):668-676.
YAN Miaomiao,ZHANG Haihan,ZHAO Zhenfang,et al.Research Progress of Metabolism and Application of Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria in Biological Denitrification Technology[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(3):668-676.]
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生物脱氮技术中好氧反硝化细菌的代谢及应用研究进展
闫苗苗1,2, 张海涵1,2, 钊珍芳1,2, 李苏霖1,2, 黄廷林1,2, 杨尚业1,2
1. 西安建筑科技大学, 陕西省环境工程重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710055;2. 西安建筑科技大学环境与市政工程学院, 陕西 西安 710055
摘要:
微生物脱氮是水体氮素去除最常用的有效方式,具有高效、经济和二次污染小等特点.好氧反硝化细菌的发现是微生物脱氮技术的重要里程碑,为新型生物脱氮领域的研发提供了新出路.当前,探究好氧反硝化细菌的脱氮特性及各环境因子(如碳源种类、C/N、温度、pH、DO、盐度、重金属含量等)在好氧条件下对反硝化过程的影响已成为污染水体氮素逸出的研究热点.通过总结好氧反硝化细菌的脱氮机制、筛选来源和种类、鉴定、脱氮特性与环境影响因素及其在实际含氮污染水体中的应用,结果表明,好氧反硝化细菌种类丰富、存在环境广泛,脱氮效率一般在50%以上;目前,好氧反硝化细菌脱氮机理的研究主要停留在氮的转化方面,对其中心碳的代谢研究以及碳氮比对反应机理的具体影响尚未明确,需要进一步探究;有关好氧反硝化细菌的脱氮特性研究尚处于实验室小试或中试阶段.建议进一步筛选高效菌群,进行碳氮代谢途径研究,优化好氧反硝化细菌固定化技术,并将其应用于实际工程中,减少水体中的氮素污染,对于实现高效、经济的脱氮具有重要社会价值.
关键词:  好氧反硝化细菌  机制  筛选  影响因素  应用
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.09.04
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(No.51978561);陕西省重点研发计划项目(No.2018ZDXM-SF-020);陕西省国际科技合作计划项目(No.2018KW-011)
Research Progress of Metabolism and Application of Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria in Biological Denitrification Technology
YAN Miaomiao1,2, ZHANG Haihan1,2, ZHAO Zhenfang1,2, LI Sulin1,2, HUANG Tinglin1,2, YANG Shangye1,2
1. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China;2. School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China
Abstract:
Microbial denitrification is the most common and effective way to remove nitrogen in water. It has the advantage of high efficiency, low cost and low secondary pollution. The discovery of aerobic denitrifying bacteria is an important milestone in biological denitrification technology, and opens up a new approach in the biological denitrification field. At present, it has become a research hotspot to explore the denitrification characteristics of aerobic denitrifying bacteria and the influence of environmental factors (such as carbon source, C/N, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, heavy metals and so on) on denitrification process under aerobic conditions in polluted water. This paper mainly introduces the denitrification mechanisms, screening sources and species, identification and denitrification characteristics of aerobic denitrifying bacteria, and its influencing factors and applications in nitrogen-rich polluted water. The results show that there are abundant aerobic denitrifying bacteria species and they widely exist in the environment, and their nitrogen removal efficiency are generally above 50%. Currently, the research on aerobic denitrifying bacteria is mainly focused on the transformation of nitrogen. However, the central metabolism and the influence of C/N are not clear and need to be further explored. The research on the denitrification characteristics of aerobic denitrifying bacteria is in the stage of laboratory test or pilot test. It will be highly valuable to further screen highly-efficient denitrifying bacteria, study the carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathways, optimize the immobilization technology of aerobic denitrifying bacteria, and apply it to practical projects. By these means, the outcome will be a significant reduction in nitrogen pollution in water and a high-efficiency and economical denitrification.
Key words:  aerobic denitrifying bacteria  mechanisms  screening  influencing factors  application