引用本文:谷得明,郭昌胜,冯启言,等.精神活性物质在北京市某污水处理厂中的污染特征与生态风险[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(3):659-667.
GU Deming,GUO Changsheng,FENG Qiyan,et al.Occurrence and Ecological Risk of Psychoactive Substances in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Beijing[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(3):659-667.]
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精神活性物质在北京市某污水处理厂中的污染特征与生态风险
谷得明1,2, 郭昌胜1, 冯启言2, 张远1, 徐建1
1. 中国环境科学研究院环境健康风险评估与研究中心, 国家环境保护化学品生态效应与风险评估重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 中国矿业大学环境与测绘学院, 江苏 徐州 221116
摘要:
为了解污水处理厂对精神活性物质的去除特征及总出水对受纳水体的生态风险,采用固相萃取-高效液相色谱-串联质谱法调查了北京市某污水处理厂中13种精神活性物质的浓度水平与负荷量变化,并运用RQ(risk quotient,风险熵)对总出水中精神活性物质进行风险评估.结果表明:①13种精神活性物质在总进水与总出水中均能检出,总质量浓度平均值分别为2 395.10和63.59 ng/L,其中ρ(EPH)(EPH表示麻黄碱)占比分别为93.9%和67.9%,其次为COD(可待因)与METH(甲基苯丙胺).污水处理厂上游地表水中ρ(EPH)、ρ(METH)与ρ(KET)(KET为氯胺酮)均高于总出水及其下游地表水,说明上游沿河可能有新的污染源输入.②污水处理厂对NK(去甲氯胺酮)、BE(苯甲酰爱康宁)和MTD(美沙酮)均呈负去除,其他精神活性物质的去除主要发生在二级生物处理与三级处理(超滤膜与UV消毒)阶段.③污水处理厂服务区域内精神活性物质的周内负荷量存在一定波动,AMP(苯丙胺)、METH、MDA(3,4-亚甲二氧基苯丙胺)、MDMA(3,4-亚甲二氧基甲基苯丙胺)、KET与HER(海洛因)的负荷量均在周末升高.④污水处理厂总出水中精神活性物质的生态风险均较低(RQ<0.10).研究显示,污水处理厂不能完全去除污水中的精神活性物质,总出水中残留精神活性物质对受纳河流生态系统产生的长期混合效应不容忽视.
关键词:  精神活性物质  污水处理厂  去除特征  负荷量  生态风险
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.06.23
分类号:X820
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.41673120,41703122)
Occurrence and Ecological Risk of Psychoactive Substances in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Beijing
GU Deming1,2, GUO Changsheng1, FENG Qiyan2, ZHANG Yuan1, XU Jian1
1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Ecological Effect and Risk Assessment of Chemicals, Center for Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Research, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
Abstract:
This study investigated the removal characteristics of psychoactive substances in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the impact of effluent on aquatic organisms in the receiving water. The occurrence of thirteen psychoactive substances in a WWTP in Beijing, their removal characteristics and load estimation, together with their ecological risks in the effluent were studied. Water samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction and the target compounds were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that thirteen psychoactive substances were detected in both influent and effluent, with the total mass concentrations of 2395.10 and 63.59 ng/L, respectively. EPH (ephedrine) accounted for 93.9% and 67.9% of the total mass in the influent and effluent respectively, followed by COD (codeine) and METH (methamphetamine). The total concentrations of EPH, METH and KET (ketamine) in upstream surface water were higher than those in effluent and downstream surface water, indicating the import of the target compounds from other pollution sources along the river. Negative removal of NK (norketamine), BE (benzoylecgonine) and MTD (methadone) was observed in WWTP and the removal of other psychoactive substances occurred mainly in the secondary biological treatment and tertiary treatment units (ultrafiltration membrane and UV disinfection). The weekly load of psychoactive substances in the service area of WWTP fluctuated to a certain extent, with the increase of AMP (amphetamine), METH, MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine), KET and HER (herion) during the weekend. The ecological risks of psychoactive substances in the effluent of WWTP were low, with all RQ (risk quotient) values less than 0.10. However, the long-term mixing effects of residual psychoactive substances on the ecosystem of the receiving river should not be ignored.
Key words:  psychoactive substances  wastewater treatment plant  removal characteristics  load  ecological risk