引用本文:温泉,赵艳民,曹伟,等.潮白河中游沉积物中重金属分布、来源及生态风险评估[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(3):599-607.
WEN Quan,ZHAO Yanmin,CAO Wei,et al.Distribution Characteristics, Sources and Potential Ecological Risks of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Middle Reaches of Chaobai River[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(3):599-607.]
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潮白河中游沉积物中重金属分布、来源及生态风险评估
温泉1,2, 赵艳民1,2, 曹伟1,2, 杨晨晨1,2, 张雷1,2, 张国宇3, 冯军坡3
1. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012;2. 中国环境科学研究院水环境研究所, 北京 100012;3. 北京金泽环境能源技术研究股份有限公司, 北京 100101
摘要:
潮白河是海河五大支流之一,其中游位于河北省,地处北京市下游和天津市上游,非汛期来水主要为北京市工业废水和生活污水.为了解潮白河中游沉积物重金属污染分布特征、来源、生态风险及可能受北京市来水的影响,于2018年6月采集9个表层沉积物样品和2个柱状沉积物样品,使用电感耦合等离子质谱仪(ICP-MS)测定Cr、Ni、Cu、Zn、As、Cd和Pb等7种重金属的质量分数.结果表明:①潮白河中游表层沉积物中w(Cr)、w(Ni)、w(Cu)、w(Zn)、w(As)、w(Cd)、w(Pb)的平均值分别为31.47、14.74、14.73、44.80、4.91、0.23、17.98 mg/kg,7种重金属质量分数除在5号采样点突然增加外,均沿河流方向呈先降后升的趋势.在垂直方向上,7种重金属在5号采样点出现富集,在9号采样点其质量分数则呈减轻趋势.②通过相关性分析和主成分分析可知,潮白河中游沉积物中Cr、Ni、Cu、As、Pb主要来源于工业和交通污染;Zn和Cd则主要来源于农业面源和生活污染.③地累积指数评价和潜在生态风险指数显示,潮白河中游表层沉积物重金属污染主要以Cd、Pb、Cu和As为主,其中Cd的潜在危害最高,各采样点综合潜在生态风险指数大小依次为5号 > 2号 > 3号 > 9号 > 1号 > 8号 > 4号 > 7号 > 6号.研究显示,潮白河中游沉积物重金属污染在5号采样点最严重,其中Cd污染程度最高,其来源主要为区域农业生产和居民生活等人类活动,应加强区域内农业和生活污染防治.
关键词:  重金属  沉积物  空间分布  来源  生态风险评价
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.07.27
分类号:
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(No.2016YSKY-008)
Distribution Characteristics, Sources and Potential Ecological Risks of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Middle Reaches of Chaobai River
WEN Quan1,2, ZHAO Yanmin1,2, CAO Wei1,2, YANG Chenchen1,2, ZHANG Lei1,2, ZHANG Guoyu3, FENG Junpo3
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;2. Institute of Water Environment Research, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;3. Beijing Jinze Environmental&Energy Technology Research Co. Ltd., Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:
The Chaobai River is one of the five tributaries of the Haihe River. The middle reaches of the Chaobai River are located in Hebei Province, which is situated downstream of Beijing and upstream of Tianjin. During the dry season, water in the middle reaches of the Chaobai River was mainly from industrial and domestic sewage that originated in Beijing. In order to understand the distribution characteristics, sources, and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in the middle reaches of the Chaobai River, nine surface sediment samples and two column sediment samples were collected in June 2018. Concentrations of seven heavy metals, including Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that:(1) The average concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb in the surface sediment samples were 31.47, 14.74, 14.73, 44.80, 4.91, 0.23 and 17.98 mg/kg respectively, and generally showed a downward and then upward trend along the water flow direction except a sudden rise at site 5. For vertical distribution, the contents of heavy metals decreased with depth at site 5, while increased at site 9. (2) Correlation analysis and principal component analysis indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb were from the industrial and traffic pollution, and Zn, Cd were mainly from agricultural activities and urban wastewater. (3) The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that sediment in the middle reaches of the Chaobai River was polluted by Cd, Pb, Cu and As. The potential ecological risk indicated a medium potential hazard of Cd. The comprehensive indexes of potential ecological risks (RI) for each sample site were 5# > 2# > 3# > 1# > 8# > 4# > 7# > 6#. These results indicated that heavy metal pollution at site 5 was the most serious, and the potential ecological risk of Cd was the highest, as sources for Cd in this region was mainly from agriculture and domestic pollution, therefore, measures should be taken to prevent and control the agricultural and domestic pollution.
Key words:  heavy metal  sediment  spatial distribution  source  ecological risk assessment