引用本文:艾舜豪,李霁,王晓南,等.太湖双酚A的水质基准研究及风险评价[J].环境科学研究,2020,33(3):581-588.
AI Shunhao,LI Ji,WANG Xiaonan,et al.Water Quality Criteria and Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A in Taihu Lake[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,33(3):581-588.]
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太湖双酚A的水质基准研究及风险评价
艾舜豪1,2, 李霁2, 王晓南2, 高祥云2, 刘征涛2, 黄云1
1. 南昌大学资源环境与化工学院, 鄱阳湖环境与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 江西 南昌 330031;2. 中国环境科学研究院, 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
水质基准是制定水质标准的重要科学依据,制定符合我国实际情况的水质基准已成为当前的迫切需求.BPA(bisphenol A,双酚A)是一种典型的内分泌干扰物,基于太湖流域的人群暴露参数和生物累积系数,采用HJ 837-2017《人体健康水质基准制定技术指南》推荐方法,推导出太湖BPA的人体健康水质基准为0.738 μg/L,通过太湖儿童暴露参数得到保护儿童BPA的人体健康基准为0.628 μg/L(6~<9岁)、0.821 μg/L(9~<12岁)、0.620 μg/L(12~<15岁),与成人基准差异不大.基于太湖流域水生生物的毒性数据,采用SSD(species sensitivity distribution,物种敏感度分布)法得到水生生物慢性基准为0.189 μg/L.使用RQ(risk quotient,风险商值)法评价太湖水体中BPA暴露所造成的健康与生态风险,结果表明,太湖中有0.03%区域面积水体存在较高健康风险,有2.03%区域面积水体存在较高的生态风险.另外,采用联合概率曲线法进一步分析生态风险发现,太湖水体中BPA对1%与5%的水生生物造成危害的概率分别为0.71%和0.33%.研究显示,我国太湖水体中BPA暴露造成的健康与生态风险处于可接受水平.
关键词:  太湖  双酚A  人体健康水质基准  水生生物水质基准  风险评价
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.07.09
分类号:X52;X826
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(No.2017ZX07301-002);国家自然科学基金项目(No.41521003);环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室自由探索基金项目
Water Quality Criteria and Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A in Taihu Lake
AI Shunhao1,2, LI Ji2, WANG Xiaonan2, GAO Xiangyun2, LIU Zhengtao2, HUANG Yun1
1. Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China;2. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Abstract:
Water quality criteria are important scientific bases for the establishment of water quality standards. It is urgent to establish water quality standards based on water quality criteria derived according to Chinese native species, water quality characteristics and human exposure factors in China. BPA (bisphenol A) is a typical endocrine disruptor and ubiquitously exists in the environment. In this study, water quality criteria of BPA for the protection of human health (0.738 μg/L) in Taihu Lake were derived based on the local exposure factors of population and the bioaccumulation. The difference of water quality criteria caused by exposure factors between adults and children was compared. The results showed that the water quality criteria for the protection of children were 0.628 μg/L (6-<9 years old), 0.821 μg/L (9-<12 years old), and 0.620 μg/L (12-<15 years old), respectively. The differences between different age group were small. The aquatic life criteria value was 0.189 μg/L based on the chronic toxicity date from 8 native species in Taihu Lake according to the species sensitivity distribution method. The health risk posed by BPA to residents around Taihu Lake basin was conducted according to the risk quotient (RQ) method. The results showed that 0.03% surface water could pose a high health risk (RQ>1). Meanwhile, the ecological risks to the aquatic organisms in Taihu Lake were higher than the risks to human health, and 2.03% surface water could pose a high ecological risk. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment with the joint probability curve indicated that the probabilities of exceeding effects thresholds on 1% and 5% of species were 0.71% and 0.33%, respectively. Overall, the health and ecological risks of surface water in Taihu Lake posed by BPA were acceptable.
Key words:  Taihu Lake  bisphenol A  water quality criteria for the protection of human health  aquatic life criteria  risk assessment