引用本文:梁济平,王彦东,杨珺,等.丹江口库区新生消落带不同土地利用酶活性比较[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):218-226.
LIANG Jiping,WANG Yandong,YANG Jun,et al.Comparison of Activities of Different Land Use Enzymes in the Newborn Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of Danjiangkou Reservoir Area[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):218-226.]
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丹江口库区新生消落带不同土地利用酶活性比较
梁济平1,2, 王彦东1,2, 杨珺1,2, 任广鑫1,2, 冯永忠1,2
1. 西北农林科技大学农学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2. 陕西省循环农业工程技术研究中心, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
随着南水北调中线工程的建成,丹江口水库水位上涨形成了大量新生消落带,消落带生态环境变化对水库水质具有较大影响,土壤酶活性和土壤养分的改变在一定程度上能反映土壤生态环境的变化.基于此,以丹江口水库新生消落带为研究区域,选取库周从未经历淹没的区域作为对照,采用裂区试验设计方法,以样地类型(新生消落带和对照区)为主处理,以3种不同土地利用类型(林地、农田和草地)为副处理,研究了土壤酶(脲酶、转化酶、过氧化氢酶和碱性磷酸酶)活性与土壤养分之间的关系.结果表明:①新生消落带土壤中w(TN)、w(NO3--N)和w(OM)均显著低于对照区(P<0.05),而农田、草地的w(NH4+-N)与林地的w(TP)显著高于对照区(P<0.05).②与对照区相比,新生消落带农田和草地的脲酶、转化酶、碱性磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶活性均降低,其中,农田和草地脲酶活性分别降低了79%和54%,而林地脲酶与过氧化氢酶显著增加,林地脲酶活性升高了133%,林地碱性磷酸酶与转化酶活性变化不显著.③不同土地利用类型的土壤理化性质对酶活性的影响不同,新生消落带农田土壤含水量、w(NH4+-N)的升高及w(TN)、w(TP)、w(OM)的降低是导致酶活性降低的主要影响因素,新生消落带林地土壤pH、w(TP)、w(TN)对酶活性的增加有主要影响,新生消落带草地土壤含水量、w(NH4+-N)、w(TN)、w(TP)、w(OM)对酶活性的降低有主要影响.研究显示,消落带林地在淹没期间能够吸附固定土壤及水体中的氮磷,水落后土壤酶活性的升高有利于土壤中养分的分解,减少氮磷对库区水体的污染.
关键词:  丹江口库区  新生消落带  土壤酶活性
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.05.03
分类号:X524
基金项目:国家科技基础性工作专项(No.2015FY110400-3)
Comparison of Activities of Different Land Use Enzymes in the Newborn Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone of Danjiangkou Reservoir Area
LIANG Jiping1,2, WANG Yandong1,2, YANG Jun1,2, REN Guangxin1,2, FENG Yongzhong1,2
1. College of Agronomy, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China;2. Shaanxi Engineering Research Center of Circular Agriculture, Yangling 712100, China
Abstract:
With the completion of the middle route project of the South-to-North water diversion project, the high-water level of the Danjiangkou Reservoir has led to a large number of newly formed water-level-fluctuating zone (NFWLFZ). The change of the ecological environment in the NFWLFZ has a great influence on the water quality of the reservoir area, and the changes of soil enzyme activity and soil nutrients can reflect the changes of soil ecological environment to a certain extent. Based on this, the Danjiangkou Reservoir NFWLFZ is taken as the study area, and the never-inundated area around the reservoir area is selected as the control area. Using the split-zone test design method, the plot type (newly formed water-level-fluctuating zone and control zone) is the main treatment, and three different land use types (forest land, farmland and grassland) are treated as the secondary treatment. The relationship between soil enzymes (urease, saccharase, catalase and alkaline phosphatase) activities and soil nutrients was studied. The results showed that:(1) The contents of w(TN),w(NO3--N) and w(OM) in the soil of the NFWLFZ were significantly lower than those in the control area, while the w(NH4+-N) of farmland and grassland and the w(TP) of forest land were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control area. (2) Compared with the control area, the activities of urease, invertase, alkaline phosphatase and catalase were all decreased in the farmland and grassland of the NFWLFZ, and farmland and grassland urease activity decreased by 79% and 54%, respectively. While the urease and catalase in the forest land were significantly increased, woodland urease activity increased by 133%, and the changes of alkaline phosphatase and invertase were not significant. (3) Soil physicochemical properties of different land use types have different effects on enzyme activities. The increase of w(NH4+-N) content and the decrease of w(TN), w(TP) and w(OM) content are the main influencing factors leading to the decrease of enzyme activities. The pH, w(TP), w(TN) of the soil in the forest land of the newly formed fluctuation zone have the main influence on the increase of enzyme activity, and the soil water content, w(NH4+-N), w(TN), w(TP) and w(OM) of the grassland in the NFWLFZ had the main influence on the decrease of enzyme activity. During the flooding period, the forest land can adsorb nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil and water, and the increase of enzyme activity after water withdrawal is beneficial to the decomposition of soil nutrients.
Key words:  Danjiangkou Reservoir  newly formed water-level-fluctuating zone  soil enzyme activities