引用本文:蔡佳佩,朱坚,彭华,等.有机肥施用对田面水氮磷流失风险的影响[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):210-217.
CAI Jiapei,ZHU Jian,PENG Hua,et al.Effects of Organic Fertilizer on the Risk of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in Soil Surface Water[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):210-217.]
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有机肥施用对田面水氮磷流失风险的影响
蔡佳佩1, 朱坚2, 彭华2, 李尝君2, 熊丽萍1, 张子叶1, 纪雄辉1,2
1. 湖南大学研究生院隆平分院, 湖南 长沙 410125;2. 湖南省农业环境生态研究所, 农业部长江中游平原农业环境重点实验室, 农田土壤重金属污染防控与修复湖南省重点实验室, 湖南 长沙 410125
摘要:
为探明化肥配施有机肥对田面水氮、磷流失及水稻系统养分吸收的影响,采用田间小区试验,设置常规施肥处理(FN)、常规施肥减氮磷量20%处理(F0)、减氮磷20%+有机肥处理(F1~F4处理有机肥施用量分别为1 500、3 000、4 500和6 000 kg/hm2)共6个处理,探索化肥减量20%配施有机肥的最优组合.结果表明:不同施肥处理下,田面水中ρ(TN)、ρ(NH4+-N)均于施肥后第1天达到峰值,随后迅速下降,于第7天后逐渐趋于稳定,ρ(TN)和ρ(NH4+-N)分别维持在各自峰值的5.1%~10.9%与4.8%~9.6%,田面水中ρ(TP)的变化趋势与ρ(TN)相似;F0与F1处理均能有效降低田面水中ρ(TN)和ρ(TP).与FN处理相比,F1处理下ρ(TN)、ρ(NH4+-N)与ρ(TP)平均值分别降低了6.5%、9.1%和3.1%,该处理能够有效地降低氮、磷养分流失风险,且增施有机肥可使水稻增产0.2%~19.8%,地上部分氮、磷累积量随有机肥施用量的增加而显著增加(P<0.05).综合水稻产量、养分吸收和田面水养分动态等指标发现,F1处理不仅能提高区域双季稻产量,还能有效控制田面水氮、磷养分浓度,降低氮、磷地表径流产生的农田面源污染风险,是针对南方双季稻田的一项"控源节流"优化施肥模式.
关键词:  氮磷  有机肥  田面水  水稻
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.03.16
分类号:X592
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No.2018YFD0800501);湖南省重点研发计划项目(No.2016JC2028);湖南省农业科学院科技创新项目(No.2017QN32)
Effects of Organic Fertilizer on the Risk of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in Soil Surface Water
CAI Jiapei1, ZHU Jian2, PENG Hua2, LI Changjun2, XIONG Liping1, ZHANG Ziye1, JI Xionghui1,2
1. Long Ping Branch, Graduate School of Hunan University, Changsha 410125, China;2. Key Lab of Agri-Environment in the Middle Reach Plain of Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Lab of Prevention, Control and Remediation of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Hunan Province, Hunan Institute of Agri-Environment and Ecology, Changsha 410125, China
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of combined application of inorganic fertilizer with different rates of organic fertilizer on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss in soil surface water and nutrient absorption in rice system, a field case study with independent irrigation system was conducted. Six treatments, including conventional fertilization (FN), 20% reduction of inorganic fertilization (F0), and reduced 20% inorganic fertilization combined with different rates of organic fertilization (F1-F4 treatments with 1500, 3000, 4500 and 6000 kg/hm2 organic fertilizer, respectively) were set up to determine the optimal application rate of organic fertilizer in combination with 20% reduction of inorganic fertilizer. The results showed that the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) in soil surface water peaked on the first day after fertilizer application and decreased thereafter, and stabilized at 5.1%-10.9% and 4.8%-9.6% respectively compared to the maximum after a week. The variation pattern of total phosphorus (TP) concentration was similar to that of N. The study indicated that F0 treatment and F1 treatment could effectively reduce the risk of both N and P losses. Compared to the FN treatment, the content of TN, NH4+-N and TP in soil surface water in the F1 treatment decreased by 6.5%, 9.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The application of organic fertilizer in combination with inorganic fertilizer promoted the rice yields by 0.2%-19.8%. The amounts of rice dry matter and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulated in rice increased significantly with the application rates of organic fertilizer (P<0.05). Considering all benefits, including rice yield, rice nutrient absorption and nutrient dynamics in soil surface water, F1 treatment proved to be an effective fertilization method to control agricultural non-point source pollution in paddy fields in South China, which not only improved rice yield, but also effectively controlled the N and P concentrations in soil surface water.
Key words:  nitrogen and phosphorus  organic fertilizer  soil surface water  rice