引用本文:刘彬,侯立安,王媛,等.我国海洋塑料垃圾和微塑料排放现状及对策[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):174-182.
LIU Bin,HOU Li'an,WANG Yuan,et al.Emission Estimate and Countermeasures of Marine Plastic Debris and Microplastics in China[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):174-182.]
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我国海洋塑料垃圾和微塑料排放现状及对策
刘彬1, 侯立安2,4, 王媛2, 马文超2, 颜蓓蓓2, 李湘萍1,2, 陈冠益1,2,3
1. 天津大学青岛海洋技术研究院, 山东 青岛 266235;2. 天津大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津 300072;3. 西藏大学理学院, 西藏 拉萨 850012;4. 火箭军后勤科学技术研究所, 北京 100011
摘要:
当前海洋塑料和微塑料污染问题是全球研究热点,随着我国陆源垃圾减量化处置率和生活污水处理覆盖率的提高,重新核算我国海洋塑料垃圾和微塑料排放量尤为重要,基于文献已报道的关于海洋塑料垃圾和微塑料排放量估算的方法并结合相关统计数据对我国相应排放量进行了核算.结果表明:2016年我国向海洋中排放塑料垃圾124×104~331×104 t,略低于2010年的132×104~353×104 t;生活污水处理厂向环境中排放塑料微珠约109.95×1012粒(折合131.78 t),远低于2014年报道的209.7×1012粒(折合306.9 t).此外,2016年我国生活污水处理厂向环境中排放合成化学纤维类微塑料约1 296.95×1012个(折合648.48 t),轮胎与地面摩擦产生合成橡胶轮胎粉尘约78.85×104 t;合成化纤类微塑料和合成橡胶轮胎粉尘等已成为陆源微塑料的重要来源.通过与发达国家和地区在海洋垃圾和微塑料污染、陆源垃圾处置、海洋垃圾污染应对等方面进行比较,未来我国应通过完善"限塑令"和生活垃圾分类体系、尽早实施"塑料微珠"限令、明晰生活污水处理厂微塑料排放状况等手段从源头控制排放,此外需有效控制塑料垃圾和微塑料的输送途径,制定和完善相关法律法规和监测标准,提升我国应对海洋塑料垃圾和微塑料污染的能力和国际影响力.
关键词:  海洋塑料垃圾  塑料微珠  纤维状微塑料  轮胎粉尘  排放现状  对策
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.07.05
分类号:X55
基金项目:生态环境部履约行动与运行管理项目之“我国海洋塑料垃圾及微塑料环境无害化管理对策研究”
Emission Estimate and Countermeasures of Marine Plastic Debris and Microplastics in China
LIU Bin1, HOU Li'an2,4, WANG Yuan2, MA Wenchao2, YAN Beibei2, LI Xiangping1,2, CHEN Guanyi1,2,3
1. Qingdao Institute for Ocean Technology of Tianjin University, Qingdao 266235, China;2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China;3. School of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850012, China;4. Institute for Logistic Science and Technology of the PLA Rocket Force, Beijing 100011, China
Abstract:
Marine plastic debris and microplastics have become a global concern because they affect all the oceans of the world. China is considered as the largest emitter of marine plastic debris and microplastics. As the number of land-based waste incineration and wastewater treatment facilities in China increased, it is particularly important to recalculate the discharge of marine plastic debris and microplastics from China. The corresponding emissions were calculated from relevant statistical data using existing estimation methods based on the literature reports on the emissions of marine plastic waste and microplastics. The results showed that 1.24-3.31 million tons of plastic debris entered the ocean in 2016 which is slightly lower than 1.32-3.53 million tons in 2010. It was estimated that about 109.95 trillion microbeads (131.78 t) were discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WwTPs), which is much lower than the 209.7 trillion microbeads (306.9 t) reported in 2014. In addition, 1296.95 trillion synthetic fiber microplastics (648.48 t) were discharged from WwTPs and 0.7885 million tons of synthetic rubber tires dust were produced in 2016. Fiber microplastics from laundry of synthetic textiles and dust from erosion of tires while driving are also important sources of land-based microplastics. By comparing the emissions of plastic debris and primary microplastics, as well as land-based waste treatment, marine litter pollution control and treatment in China with those from developed countries, China should strengthen land-based waste management by improving the ‘ban on free plastic bags’ and the domestic waste classification system. Also, a policy to ‘limit plastic microbeads’ should be implemented as soon as possible, and microplastics emissions from WwTPs should be investigated. Further countermeasures for marine litter pollution, such as formulating relevant laws and regulations and inspection and monitoring standards, need to be improved. Therefore, increase China's international influence on marine plastic debris and microplastics pollution control.
Key words:  marine plastic debris  microbeads  fiber microplastics  tires dust  emission estimate  countermeasures