引用本文:张怡蕾,操家顺,薛朝霞,等.城市排水管道内污染物迁移转化规律研究进展[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):111-121.
ZHANG Yilei,CAO Jiashun,XUE Zhaoxia,et al.Research Progress on the Pollutants Migration and Transformation in Municipal Sewer[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):111-121.]
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城市排水管道内污染物迁移转化规律研究进展
张怡蕾1, 操家顺1,2, 薛朝霞1,2, 冯骞1,2, 吴瑒1
1. 河海大学, 江苏 南京 210098;2. 河海大学, 浅水湖泊综合治理与资源开发教育部重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210098
摘要:
城市排水管道内污染物随水流沿程降解转化,是造成管道腐蚀、有毒有害气体产生的重要原因,掌握污染物的迁移转化规律,对于优化排水系统运行、改善管网周边环境具有重要意义.在阐述污水和沉积物两相污染特性的基础上,着重综述了管道内污染物的迁移转化规律:①常量污染物(如氮、磷、硫)在管道内好氧-厌氧交替的条件下沿程降解释放,微量污染物难以完全降解,多发生形态结构变化或由水相向沉积相中迁移.②管道生物膜对污染物的降解转化起主导作用,管道内高基质浓度环境和水流冲刷作用为生物膜稳定状态的维持创造了有利条件.③污染物迁移过程中,气体的产生受有机物浓度、温度、水力停留时间及流速的影响,应结合管道内实际污染物的组成情况采用相应的有害气体控制措施.在污染物迁移转化规律研究中,模型模拟是重要的研究方法,现有模型多从生化反应过程和水力学的角度切入,随着人工智能等新兴技术逐渐应用于管道建模,模型的精确度不断提高.建议今后加强污染物在管道内污水、沉积物、空气三相间迁移转化规律的研究,尤其是针对微量污染物的研究应广泛开展;在实际应用中,应在全面分析管道内污染特性的基础上,实施针对性的污染物抑制策略,建立符合本地特征的污染物迁移转化模型.
关键词:  排水管道  沉积物  污染特性  迁移转化  模型模拟
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.06.15
分类号:X52
基金项目:国家科技重大专项(No.2014ZX07305-002-02)
Research Progress on the Pollutants Migration and Transformation in Municipal Sewer
ZHANG Yilei1, CAO Jiashun1,2, XUE Zhaoxia1,2, FENG Qian1,2, WU Yang1
1. College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China;2. Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Abstract:
The degradation of pollutants during the transportation of sewer is one of the main causes for pipeline corrosion and harmful gases generation. The clarification of the pollutants migration and transformation behaviors in sewer is critical to the optimization of drainage systems and improvement of the surrounding environment. This review firstly describes the basic characteristics of pollution situations in sewage and sediments. Then it focuses on the aspects of transformation behaviors of pollutants in sewer. Several important results are found, including:(1) The nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur could be degraded and released under the condition of aerobic and anaerobic alternation in sewer. However, the micro-pollutants are difficult to be completely degraded. Most of them are merely form changed or migrate from sewage to sediments. (2) The sewer biofilms play a major role in the degradation of pollutants. High concentration of the substrates and continuous sewage flow create favorable conditions to maintain the biofilm stability. (3) The gas production during pollutants transformation is affected by the concentration of substrates, temperature, hydraulic retention time and flow velocity. The strategies for the harmful gas control should be adjusted accordingly for specific pollutants. Model simulation is widely used in the study of pollutants migration and transformation behaviors. Most of the existing models are based on biochemical reactions and hydraulics. With the application of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence, the accuracy of model simulation is gradually improved. Future researches should focus on the migration principals among multi-phases (sewage, sediment and air), particularly the transformation behaviors of micro-pollutants. In practical applications, a comprehensive analysis of the pollution characteristics in sewer is required to develop suitable control strategies and establish accurate models.
Key words:  sewer  sediments  pollution characteristics  migration and transformation  model