引用本文:师艳丽,张萌,姚娜,等.江西定南县离子型稀土尾矿周边水体氮污染状况与分布特征[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):94-103.
SHI Yanli,ZHANG Meng,YAO Na,et al.Water Pollution Status and Nitrogen Pollution Distribution Patterns around Ion-Absorbed Rare Earth Tailings in Dingnan County, Jiangxi Province[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):94-103.]
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江西定南县离子型稀土尾矿周边水体氮污染状况与分布特征
师艳丽1,2, 张萌1, 姚娜1, 曾萍3, 冯兵1, 陈明2, 李发东4, 张依章3
1. 江西省环境保护科学研究院, 江西 南昌 330039;2. 江西理工大学, 江西省矿冶环境污染控制重点实验室, 江西 赣州 341000;3. 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012;4. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
摘要:
为探究"稀土王国"江西省赣南地区离子型稀土矿对周边水体环境的影响,以离子型稀土矿分布密集区定南县濂江月子河流域和龙迳河龙头流域为研究对象,综合分析研究区特征污染物ρ(NH4+-N)空间分布特征,采用相关性分析和主成分分析揭示其主要污染来源及影响因素.结果表明:①离子型稀土矿停产整顿半年后,濂江月子河流域和龙迳河龙头流域ρ(NH4+-N)超过1.00和2.00 mg/L的采样点分别达72%和68%;pH范围为2.95~7.66,平均值分别为6.23和5.53,水体总体上偏酸性;ρ(TN)、ρ(NH4+-N)、EC与ρ(NO3--N)变异系数较大,均介于0.80~1.50之间.②相关性分析结果显示,ρ(NH4+-N)与ρ(TN)、EC均呈极显著正相关(P<0.01);ρ(NH4+-N)与pH呈显著负相关(P<0.05).③流经稀土尾矿区的水体中ρ(NH4+-N)随距离增加呈现明显的空间梯度分布特征,即距稀土矿区边界200 m处水体中ρ(NH4+-N)最高(12.20~200.00 mg/L),其次为1.15 km内(3.69~11.80 mg/L)及3.5 km以上水体(0.80~1.51 mg/L),矿区周边未受到采矿活动影响的水体中ρ(NH4+-N)最低(0.03~0.15 mg/L).④PCA结果表明,2条河流的主要环境影响因子为ρ(TN)、ρ(NH4+-N)、pH和EC,主要受到周边稀土矿山尾矿的强烈影响.研究显示,离子型稀土矿原位浸矿开采停产半年后,重点小流域水体中ρ(NH4+-N)高概率超标的现状仍然存在,受稀土开采活动影响较大.建议进一步开展重点小流域NH4+-N剩余"库容"精算和矿山周边地表水定期监测.
关键词:  离子型稀土尾矿  赣南  水污染  NH4+-N  分布特征
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.07.20
分类号:X824
基金项目:江西省重点科技计划项目(No.20171ACG70019);江西省科技计划项目(No.20133BBG70001,20141BBG70012)
Water Pollution Status and Nitrogen Pollution Distribution Patterns around Ion-Absorbed Rare Earth Tailings in Dingnan County, Jiangxi Province
SHI Yanli1,2, ZHANG Meng1, YAO Na1, ZENG Ping3, FENG Bing1, CHEN Ming2, LI Fadong4, ZHANG Yizhang3
1. Jiangxi Provincial Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Nanchang 330039, China;2. Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Mining & Metallurgy Environmental Pollution Control, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, China;3. Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;4. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:
Southern Jiangxi is called the ‘rare earth kingdom’ because of its due rich ion-absorbed rare earth ores. Dingnan County is one of the most densely distributed areas in southern Jiangxi. This study took two watersheds of Dingnan (i.e. the Yuezi River in Lianjiang River Basin and Longtou River in Longjing River Basin) as the objects to explore the influence of rare earth tailings on the river water quality. The spatial pattern, major sources of the specific pollutant (ρ(NH4+-N)) in the two river basins and its influencing factors were explored and analyzed with correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that after the mining activities stopped for six months, the proportion of the sample sites with ammonia concentration exceeded 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L was 72% and 68% in the two basins, respectively. In general, the river water was acidic with the pH value ranging from 2.95 to 7.66, and the average pH value was 6.23 in Yuezi River and 5.53 in Longtou River, respectively. The variation coefficient of ρ(TN), ρ(NH4+-N), ρ(NO3--N) and conductivity (EC) were 0.80 to 1.50. The significant positive correlation was detected between ρ(NH4+-N) and ρ(TN) or (P<0.01), and ρ(NH4+-N) was negatively core related with pH (P<0.05). The spatial gradient phenomenon of ρ(NH4+-N) in the water-bodies was found with the increase of distance along the flowing direction away from the tailings of the rare earth mine. The concentration of ammonia in the water column was detected as the highest away from rare earth mining area 200 m with the ρ(NH4+-N) ranging from 12.20 mg/L to 200.00 mg/L, and followed by 1.15 km with the ρ(NH4+-N) ranging from 3.69 mg/L to 11.80 mg/L and ≥ 3.5 km with the ρ(NH4+-N) ranging from 0.80 mg/L to 1.51 mg/L. Ammonia concentration was the lowest in the river areas above the mining areas with no mining interference and ρ(NH4+-N) was from 0.03 mg/L to 0.15 mg/L. According to the results of PCA, the main environmental impact factors were ρ(TN), ρ(NH4+-N), pH and EC in the two rivers, which were strongly influenced by the existence of the rare earth tailings. It's suggested that high probability of NH4+-N exceeding the standard still existed in the small branch watershed after the mining activities with the in-situ leaching process stopped for half a year. Measurement of the remaining NH4+-N ‘reservoir capacity’ and regular monitoring of surface water around the tailings in the small branch watershed need to be carried out in the future.
Key words:  ion-absorbed rare earth tailings  southern Jiangxi  water pollution  ammonia  distribution patterns