引用本文:李佳音,邹克华,李伟芳,等.养猪场恶臭污染的预测模型及感官评估研究[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):88-93.
LI Jiayin,ZOU Kehua,LI Weifang,et al.Prediction Model and Sensory Evaluation of Odor Pollution in Pig Farms[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):88-93.]
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养猪场恶臭污染的预测模型及感官评估研究
李佳音1,3, 邹克华2,3, 李伟芳2,3, 耿静2,3, 闫凤越1,3, 杨伟华1,3
1. 天津迪兰奥特环保科技开发有限公司, 天津 300191;2. 天津市环境保护科学研究院, 天津 300191;3. 国家环境保护恶臭污染控制重点实验室, 天津 300191
摘要:
现代化、集约化养殖技术促进了养猪业的高效发展,但养殖过程中产生的恶臭污染对环境的影响也逐渐显露出来.为正确识别养猪场恶臭物质组成、建立基于关键致臭物质的恶臭气体预测模型、感官评估恶臭对人产生的心理影响,对天津市某养猪场母猪舍、育肥舍及舍外的恶臭气体进行采样.应用GC-MS,分析物质组成;根据阈稀释倍数计算结果,确定关键致臭物质;通过研究各组分对复合恶臭的影响,建立复合恶臭气体预测模型;结合臭气浓度与人群实际心理感受,提出养猪场厌恶临界点.结果表明:①该养猪场共检出恶臭物质48种,各类型恶臭物质质量分数大小依次为w(氨) > w(含氧烃) > w(硫化物) > w(烷烃) > w(卤代烃) > w(烯烃) > w(芳香烃).②该养猪场关键致臭物质为氨与乙醇,其中氨对复合臭气浓度的影响最大.③养猪场复合恶臭气体预测模型为O=0.34I1+0.75I2+5.81(其中,O为复合臭气浓度指数,I1I2分别为乙醇和氨的恶臭气体指数),经实际样品检验该模型具有良好的预测效果.④养猪场气味属厌恶范畴,厌恶程度随臭气浓度的增加而增强.⑤养猪场厌恶临界点为13,即臭气浓度大于13时,就会对人群产生干扰.研究显示,养猪场恶臭气体组成复杂,对人群的干扰可以用愉悦度进行评价,根据关键致臭物质可以预测感官恶臭污染.
关键词:  养猪场  恶臭污染  关键致臭物质  预测模型  愉悦度  感官评估
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.05.18
分类号:X512
基金项目:国家重点研发计划基金资助项目(No.2016YFC0700603-003);国家自然科学基金项目(No.21577096)
Prediction Model and Sensory Evaluation of Odor Pollution in Pig Farms
LI Jiayin1,3, ZOU Kehua2,3, LI Weifang2,3, GENG Jing2,3, YAN Fengyue1,3, YANG Weihua1,3
1. Tianjin Sinodour Environmental Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin 300191, China;2. Tianjin Academy of Environmental Science, Tianjin 300191, China;3. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Odour Pollution Control, Tianjin 300191, China
Abstract:
Pig industry has been promoted efficiently by the modern and intensive breeding technology, while the environmental pollution has been gradually emerged. In order to identify the composition of odorous substances in pig farms, establish an odor prediction model based on the key odorants, and evaluate the psychological effects of human beings by sensory, samples were collected from a pig farm in Tianjin City. The odor material composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The odor contribution of individual component was judged by the results of threshold dilution rate to determine the odorants. The odor prediction model was established by studying the influence of each component. The origin software was used to analyze the relationship between the hedonic tone and the odor concentration. Combined with the odor concentration and the actual psychological feelings of human beings, the unpleasant critical point was established. The results showed that:(1) A total of 48 substances were detected in this pig farm with the order of mass percent:w(ammonia) > w(oxygenated hydrocarbon) > w(sulfide) > w(alkane) > w(hydrocarbon) > w(olefin) > w(arene). (2) The key odorants of the pig farm are ammonia and alcohol, and ammonia has the greatest influence on the overall odor concentration. (3) The composite odor prediction model is:O=0.34I1+0.75I2+5.81, which showed good predictions after a series of verification tests by real samples. (4) The hedonic tone of pig farm belonged to the aversion category, and the unpleasantness increased with the odor concentration. (5) The unpleasant critical point is 13, which means that people will be disturbed if the odor concentration exceeds 13. In conclusion, the odor in pig farm is complex, and its offensiveness can be evaluated by the hedonic tone. The sensory odor pollution can be predicted by the key odorants.
Key words:  pig farm  odor pollution  key odorant  prediction model  hedonic tone  sensory evaluation