引用本文:王宏,郑秋萍,洪振宇,等.福建省沿海地区春季一次近地层O3超标成因分析[J].环境科学研究,2020,(1):36-43.
WANG Hong,ZHENG Qiuping,HONG Zhenyu,et al.Analysis of a Springtime High Surface Ozone Event over Fujian Coastal Areas[J].Research of Environmental Sciences,2020,(1):36-43.]
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福建省沿海地区春季一次近地层O3超标成因分析
王宏1, 郑秋萍1, 洪振宇2, 黄艳艳3
1. 福建省气象科学研究所, 福建 福州 350001;2. 中国科学院城市环境研究所, 福建 厦门 361021;3. 福建省环境监测中心站, 福建 福州 350003
摘要:
福建省沿海地区春季ρ(O3)较高且超标天数较多,为研究春季ρ(O3)超标的天气学成因,选取2017年4月26日-5月1日O3污染过程,利用统计对比和聚类分析方法,将全过程分成污染前、污染维持和污染后3个阶段,再将污染维持阶段分为4个区,利用ρ(O3)和ρ(PM2.5)小时均值资料,结合天气形势和气象要素场变化,分析此次O3污染的主要特点.结果表明:①此次O3污染与天气形势关系密切,在冷高压(4月28-29日)控制下,光化学反应条件有利,太阳辐射强、日照时间超过11 h,08:00起ρ(O3)上升速率为15~20 μg/(m3·h),ρ(O3)最大8 h滑动平均值[简称"ρ(O3)-max-8 h"]超过GB 3095-2012《环境空气质量标准》二级标准限值,但大气扩散条件好,ρ(PM2.5)日均值未超过一级标准限值,ρ(O3)超标原因为光化学反应所致,并且ρ(O3)分布有明显的日变化规律.②在锋前暖区(4月26日08:00-16:00)及变性冷高压(4月30日-5月1日)控制下,光化学反应剧烈,08:00起ρ(O3)上升速率为25~35 μg/(m3·h),天气静稳且大气扩散条件差,本地生成的O3在近地层累积效应明显,4月30日ρ(O3)小时均值和ρ(O3)-max-8 h达到过程峰值,ρ(PM2.5)日均值超过GB 3095-2012二级标准限值,ρ(O3)-max-8 h超过三级标准限值,空气质量达中度污染,ρ(O3)超标原因为光化学反应加本地累积所致,并且ρ(O3)分布也有明显的日变化规律.③受强冷空气影响,4月26日20:00-24:00福建省沿海地区的6个城市ρ(O3)不降反升,22:00-24:00 ρ(O3)8 h滑动平均值陆续达到一天中的最高值;4月27日ρ(O3)维持在70~140 μg/m3之间,ρ(O3)分布没有明显的日变化规律.研究显示,导致福建省沿海地区春季O3污染天气的成因是多种因素共同作用的结果.
关键词:  春季  近地层O3  超标  成因分析  福建省沿海
DOI:10.13198/j.issn.1001-6929.2019.08.05
分类号:X51
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No.U1405235);华东区域气象科技协同创新基金项目(No.QYHZ201813);福建省气象局开放式研究基金(No.2019KX04)
Analysis of a Springtime High Surface Ozone Event over Fujian Coastal Areas
WANG Hong1, ZHENG Qiuping1, HONG Zhenyu2, HUANG Yanyan3
1. Fujian Institute of Meteorological Science, Fuzhou 350001, China;2. Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China;3. Fujian Environmental Monitoring Central Station, Fuzhou 350003, China
Abstract:
High ozone concentration was observed frequently in spring time in Fujian Province. To analyze the meteorological causes of ozone pollution in this region, the O3 pollution process from April 26th to May 1st, 2017 was studied. The whole process was divided into three stages:pre-pollution, pollution maintenance and post-pollution by statistical comparison and cluster analysis method. Then the pollution maintenance stage was divided into four periods for analysis. The main characteristics of high O3 pollution were analyzed by using hourly ρ(O3) and ρ(PM2.5) data, different synoptic situation and changes of meteorological element field. The results showed that the ozone pollution was closely related to synoptic situation. (1) Under the control of cold high pressure (April 28th-29th), the conditions of photochemical reactions were favorable, solar radiation was strong and sunshine time exceeded 11 hours. The rising rate of ρ(O3) was 15-20 μg/m3 per hour from 08:00. The maximum moving 8 h average value of ρ(O3) was over the grade Ⅱ standard in China's Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 3095-2012). However, the atmospheric diffusion condition was good, the daily mean value of ρ(PM2.5) was below the grade Ⅰ standard, and the cause of O3 exceeding the standard was photochemistry reactions. There was obvious diurnal variation of hourly ρ(O3). (2) In warm sector ahead of front (April 26th, 08:00-16:00) and transformed surface cold high (April 30th -May 1st), photochemistry reactions were intense. The rising rate of ρ(O3) was 25-35 μg/m3 per hour from 08:00 am. The weather was stable, the atmospheric diffusion conditions were poor. The accumulation effect of the locally generated O3 was obvious in the near stratum. The hourly ρ(O3) and the maximum moving 8 h average value of ρ(O3) reached the process peak (April 30th). The daily mean value of ρ(PM2.5) was over the grade Ⅱ standard, and the maximum moving 8 h average value of ρ(O3) was over the grade Ⅲ standard. The air quality levels of O3 and PM2.5 were mild. The cause of O3 exceeding the standard was photochemical reactions and local accumulation. There was obvious diurnal variation of hourly ρ(O3). (3) Influenced by strong cold air, ρ(O3) did not decrease but rose in six coastal cities on the night of April 26th, and the moving 8 h average value of ρ(O3) in 22:00-24:00 reached the highest value of the day. On 27th, hourly ρ(O3) maintained at 70-140 ug/m3, without obvious diurnal variation. The cause of ozone pollution in spring was not a single one, but the result of many factors.
Key words:  spring  ozone of near surface layer  over standard  cause analysis  Fujian coastal areas